List compiled by Bryan P. Wainwright. Species total 244 last updated 2007

Species appearing in square brackets [] are pending further evidence for a final decision.


This list is designed to give reliable information on all the species of bird recorded at Iracambi, and provides justification for the species appearing on the official list. It further is intended to provide an idea of the status of each species at Iracambi at the present time, if only unfortunately in a subjective way at the moment.



Tinamiformes Tinamidae                                                                                                

Brown Tinamou                                Crypturellus obsoletus                                Inhambu-acu           

This species can be heard on the Graminha trail, giving it rising pitch series of whistles which become faster and faster, before ending abruptly. Two birds seen and heard well by BPW on Graminha trail (in 2004/5).


Tataupa Tinamou                                Crypturellus tataupa                                Inhambu-chinta

This species is very frequently heard around the Centro, and elsewhere (BPW 2007), though seldom seen, and does not seem to range higher up where Brown Tinamou is more likely to be found. It is silent in winter around Centro, though birds are heard at the Secret Valley at this time. The birds at the Secret Valley need more checking.


Podicipediformes Podicipedidae                                                                                                

Least Grebe                                Podiceps dominicus                                Mergulhao-pequeno

Infrequent at the fish ponds in 2004/5 (BPW).


Pelecaniiformes Anhingidae                                                                                                

Anhinga                                Anhinga anhinga                                Bigua-tinga             

This record has not been traced. There seems confusion between this species and Neotropical Cormorant by some people, looking at English names and scientific!


Ciconiiformes Ardeidae                                                                                                 

Great Egret                                 Casmerodius alba                                Garca-branca           

Usually lone birds seen in the meadows below Casa De Barro (in 2004/5 (BPW).


Striated Heron                                Butorides striatus                                Socozinho

Usually lone birds seen in the meadows below Casa De Barro (in 2004/5 (BPW).


Cattle Egret                                Bubulcus ibis                                Garca-vaqueira        

Birds seen in the meadows below Casa De Barro (in 2004/5 (BPW).


Whistling Heron                                Syrigma sibilatrix                                Maria-faceira          

Birds seen in the meadows below Casa De Barro (in 2004/5 (BPW). Has increased substantially with sometimes up to 8 birds present in the meadows.


Capped Heron                                Piloherodius pileatus                                Pilherodius pileatus 

Usually lone birds seen in the meadows below Casa De Barro (in 2004/5 (BPW). This formerly regular species seems to have declined to almost nothing since the first appearance of Whistling Herons here.


Anseriformes Anatidae                                                                                                 

White-faced Tree Duck                                Dendrocygna viduata                                Irere                       

First seen on 03/10/03, rarely seen since.


Brazilian Teal                                Amazonetta brasiliensis                                Marreca-pe-vermelho                

Birds seen in the meadows below Casa De Barro in 2004/5 (BPW), seems to be more frequent now. Also in 2007 seen at the pond near Centro.


Falconiformes Cathartidae                                                                                                 

Black Vulture                                Coragyps atratus                                Urubu                      

Common to very common.


Turkey Vulture                                Cathartes aura                                Urubu-de-cebeca-vermelha                

Quiet common. Some birds show white on the upperwing primaries and white legs, and a more yellow head as Lesser Yellow-headed Vulture, but do not fly with a flat profile wings, and these birds remain a mystery.


Lesser Yellow-headed Vulture

Birds fitting this description are seen in the area, even though the habitat is not right. These birds are a mystery.


Falconiformes Accipitridae                                                                                                 

Pearl Kite                                Gampsonyx swainsoni                                Gaviaozinho           

Scarce and infrequently seen.


Swallow-tailed Kite                                 Elanoides forficatus                                 Gaviao-tesoura        

Migratory, and infrequently seen on passage. Some days groups into double figures may be seen, and some may linger several days.


Plumbeous Kite                                Ictinia plumbea                                Gaviao-sauveiro      

First seen over the Centre on 25/12/04 (BPW). This very distinctive grey bird with rufous primaries from below was seen well over the Centro, in good light on more than one occasion, but not since. Undoubtably rare in the area.


White-tailed Hawk                                Buteo albicaudatus                                Gaviao-de-rabo-branco

Uncommon seen in higher parts, especially the High Trail.


Roadside Hawk                                Buteo magnirostris                                Gaviao-carijo          

This common and widespread species is infrequently met with, though doubtless a couple of pairs are resident in the area.


Grey Hawk                                Buteo nitidus                                Gaviao-pedres

No confimed sightings. Pending.  


Mantled Hawk*                   VU Th EN                                Leucopternis polionota                                Gaviao-pomba        

First seen as it landed just in front of me (20m) in the forest of the High Trail. I expected it to be White-necked Hawk but on closer inspection the lower half of the tail was completely white, without the black sub-terminal band of White-necked Hawk. Mantled Hawk has never been recorded in this area, though there is no reason why it should not occur, as its range extends over this area and at this altitude and the habitat is ideal. There was only a single white spot on the folded wing, which is closer to White-necked Hawk but this feature may have been because the bird was in moult. Note the black tail band of White-necked Hawk would still show on a bird in moult. The call was very like White-necked Hawk, though Mantled Hawk is supposed to have a similar call anyway. Following this sighting came several sightings in December 2004 by BPW, always on the top of the High Trail, which was either this species or White-necked Hawk, views were always frustratingly inconclusive. Later examination of a stuffed bird (at Augusto Ruschi museum) confirmed the first sighting as Mantled Hawk.


White-necked Hawk*           VU Th EN                                Leucopternis lacernulata                                Gaviao-pomba

Rare, infrequently seen, usually seen high over this area or along the higher parts of the High Trail.


Savanna Hawk                                Buteogallus meridionalis                                Gaviao-caboclo

At least 2 pairs are resident in the Fazenda, or immediate area, one pair in the meadows at Casa de Barro and the other somewhere in the vicinity of the Centro.


Great Black Hawk                                Buteogallus urubitinga                                Gavião-preto

First seen over the Centre on 12/12/04. This large black raptor is unlikely to be confused, at least in this area, the tail pattern is diagnostic.


Sharp-shinned Hawk                                Accipiter striatus                                Gaviaozinho           

First seen flying and perched in open areas at the Centre on 19/01/07 (BPW). The main identification being the sparrowhawk shape, slender form, bright red iris and tail pattern. This species is easily mistaken for certain other species namely Roadside Hawk, Barred Forest-Falcon and Tiny Hawk. It may be told from the former by its smaller, slender shape and paler face and different tail colours, and may be told from the forest-falcon on habits mainly, as the forest-falcon inhabits mature forest interiors and would not be seen in open areas; it has all dark cheeks unlike the hawk and a completely different tail pattern. It most resembles the rare (or under-recorded) Tiny Hawk, however the iris of Tiny Hawk is yellow not red, Sharp-shinned lacks the white supercilium of Tiny Hawk instead having a pale almost white face. On the bird I saw the iris colour was ruby red and the tail was clearly seen as well as other features.


Crane Hawk                                Geranospiza caerulescens                                gavião-pernilongo

First seen over the Centre on 21/12/04 (BPW), distinctive underwing pattern.


Falconiformes Falconidae                                                                                                 

Laughing Falcon                                 Herpetotheres cachinnans                                Acaua

Seen in winter along the road towards Casa de Barro, sometimes near entrance to Secret Valley.


Collared Forest-Falcon                                Micrastur semitorquatus                                Gaviao-relogio

Seldom observed and scarce.  Last record 1 adult (white phase!?) & 1 immature, Centro (Carlo Castellani between 19th April to 6th May 2005).


Barred Forest-Falcon                                Micrastur ruficollis                                Gaviao-cabure

Seldom observed, usually only seen as a flash of a raptor shape in good forest, when difficult to tell from similar species such as the common and widespread Sharp-shinned Hawk.


Yellow-headed Caracara                                Milvago chimachima                                Carrapateiro, Pinhe

The most frequently encountered caracara in the area.


Crested Caracara                                 Polyborus plancus                                Caracara

Infrequent but fairly regular, the immatures of this species can easily look like Chimango Caracara, which does not occur in this area, but could conceivably do so as a vagrant.


Bat Falcon                                 Falco rufigularis                                Falcao-morcegueiro

No information.


Aplomado Falcon                                Falco femoralis                                Falcao-de-coleira

First seen over Angola on 16/11/04 (BPW), this large, long-winged falcon is easily recognised.


American Kestrel                                Falco sparverius                                Quiriquiri

The commonest falcon around and frequently and easily observed, usually in open areas.             


Galliformes Cracidae                                                                                                 

Dusky-legged Guan             LC Th VU                                                  Penelope obscura                                Jacuacu, Jacu           

The strange guttural noises of this species can often be heard in less frequented areas of both good and secondary forest, seeing them is another matter and often all that is glimpsed is large black shapes moving deeper into the forest, while calling.


Gruiformes Rallidae 

Grey-necked Wood-Rail                                 Aramides cajanea                                Saracura-tres-potes

Not often seen, more shy and tied to swampy areas, but can occasionally be seen on the track from the Centro to Casa De Barro, especially near where the stream from the marsh runs across the track just before the Centro gate.


Slaty-breasted Wood-Rail                                 Aramides saracura                                Saracura-do-mato

This species is the most frequently encountered of the rails, and is quite easily seen around the Centro in the early mornings or evenings, being like other rails very crepuscular. Its resemblance to the Blackish Rail is uncanny, and doubtless has caused much confusion, however there are some reliable ways in which to tell these 2 similar species apart, the main difference being voice (check the recordings). The other main difference is the colour of the bill, in the Blackish Rail it is darker green and longer whereas the wood-rail’s is yellowier, and the Blackish Rail has a whiter throat.  


Common Gallinule                                Gallinula chloropus                                Frango-d'agua

Common wherever there is water.


Purple Gallinule                                Porphyrula martinica                                Frango-d'agua-azul

First seen at Angola on 03/11/04 (BPW), later bred at the ponds (RLB).


Gruiformes Cariamidae                                                                                                 

Red-legged Seriema                                Cariama cristata                                Seriema

Surprisingly numerous if the amount of distinctive calls heard are anything to go by. Up to 3 may be seen on the hillsides with pasture, particularly near the Centro.


Charadriiformes Jacanidae                                                                                                 

Wattled Jacana                                 Janaca janaca                                Piacoca

Common wherever there is water.


Charadriiformes Charadriidae                                                                                                 

Southern Lapwing                                Vanellas chilensis                                Quero-quero

Common in the meadows.


Columbiformes Columbidae                                                                                                 

Eared Dove                                Zenaida auriculata                                                               


Picazuro Pigeon                                 Columba picazuro                                Pomba-asa-branca   

The commonest and largest pigeon.


Pale-vented Pigeon                                Columba cayennensis                                pomba-galega          

First seen on track to Centre on 20/12/2004, uncommon, obviously overlooked before. Mainly seen flying across the path, perches secluded and is wary.


Plumbeous Pigeon                                Colomba plumbea                                Pomba-amargosa    


Ruddy Ground-Dove                                 Columbina talpacoti                                Rolinha                   

Very common, the females seem to cause people identification problems with, Plain-winged Ground-Dove, a cerrado species, been claimed.


Blue Ground-Dove                                 Claravis pretiosa                                Pomba-de-espelho  


White-tipped Dove                                Leptotila verreauxi                                Juriti                       

Quite common, its deep slow ‘whoo’ calls sound very primate like!


Psittaciformes Psittacidae                                                                                                

Blue-winged Macaw                NT -- --                                 Propyrrhura maracana                                Maracana

Infrequently observed in pairs or small groups, more numerous where there is more expanse of good forest, on the High Trail or towards Itajuru.


Reddish-bellied Parakeet Pyrrhura frontalis tiriba-de-testa-vermelha        

Seen briefly flying from trees towards the Centre. They flew away from the observer and banked to join some Blue-winged Macaws, they were a similar (slightly smaller) size. They had ochre faces and the dark crown and nape were clearly visible as was the reddish tail. The views were only a few seconds at a poor angle and there are other species in range that have similar face markings. Seen once, January 2005 by BPW.


White-eyed Parakeet                                 Aratinga leucophthalmus                                Periquitao-maracana

The commonest large parrot, their loud raucous calls helps them to be seen or at least heard daily.


Blue-winged Parrotlet                                 Forpus xanthopterygius                                Tuim

Fairly common if easily missed as they dart by, often low, the small flash of blue and green can easily be mistaken for a passerine.


Reddish-bellied Parakeet                                Pyrrhura frontalis

This species was observed and identified while flying at Itajuru (the municipal park) on 10th June 2007 (BPW), from their mellow short calls and reddish bellies on some adults. Later the same day about 6 birds were seen very well perched in trees.


Plain Parakeet*                                 Brotogeris tirica

This species was first seen on track to Centre on 11/12/2004 (BPW). The blue on the wings of this species may cause confusion in flight with Blue-winged Macaw, however the call is different and my observation was of perched birds, which are easy to tell, due to the difference in head and face markings.


Scaly-headed Parrot                                 Pionus maximiliani                                Maitaca-de-Maximiliano           

Seen more in winter flying in pairs or small groups, and giving their characteristic mellower (than White-eyed Parakeet) double call, with pauses between. Flight very direct.


Cuculiformes Cuculidae                                                                                                 

Squirrel Cuckoo                                 Piaya cayana                                Alma-de-gato          

A skulking species with a repertoire of odd calls, and fairly common in forest.


Smooth-billed Ani                                Crotophaga ani                                Anu-preto               

Common in a variety of habitats, most easily seen in pasture.


Guira Cuckoo                                 Guira guira                                Anu-branco             

Not very common but widespread.


Striped Cuckoo                                 Tapera naevia                                Peixe-frito              



Strigiformes Tytonidae                                                                                                

Barn Owl                                Tyto alba                                Suindara                  



Strigiformes Strigidae                                                                                                

Tropical Screech Owl                                 Otus choliba                                Corujinha-do-mato 

Often heard calling behind the Centro at night.


Burrowing Owl                                Athene cunicularia                                Coruja-buraqueira    

Seen in pastures near Graminha, just off Iracambi land.


Caprimulgiformes Caprimulgidae                                                                                                 

Pauraque                                Nyctidromus albicollis                                Curiango                 

One of the most frequently encountered night bird, often sits on the track near the Centro.


Apodiformes Apodidae                                                                                                 

White-collared Swift                                Streptoprocne zonaris                                andorinhão-de-coleira                    

Rare, occasionally seen darting over the Centro often high up, can be very difficult to tell from the equally likely but so far unrecorded Biscuate Swift.


Lesser Swallow-tailed Swift Panyptila cayanensis

New for Iracambi, 1, main road north of Centro (Carlo Castellani between 19th April to 6th May 2005). Also 3 were seen 4th May 2007 (BPW).


Apodiformes Trochilidae                                                                                                 

Black Jacobin                                 Melanotrochilus fuscus                                Beija-flor-preto-e-branco                    

Fairly common and easily encountered and identified in summer.


White-vented Violet-ear Colibri serrirostris

A new record for Iracambi (actually just beyond the Fazenda) 1 singing, coffee plantation, Eastern slope of Pico Graminha (Carlo Castellani between 19th April to 6th May 2005).


Dusky-throated Hermit*                                 Phaethornis squalidus                                Rabo-branco-miudo 

This is much more of a forest bird than Planalto Hermit, seen on Graminha Trail.

Planalto Hermit                                 Phaethornis pretrei                                Rabo-branco-de-sobre-amarelo         

Found in forest and open scrub areas, fairly common.


Reddish Hermit                                Phaethornis ruber                                Besourinho-da-mata

This species is present on the High Trail and is also seen around the computer room at Centro.


Swallow-tailed Hummingbird                                 Eupetomena macroura                                Tesourao                

Fairly common.


Glittering-bellied Emerald                                 Chlorostibon aureoventris                                Besourinho-do-bico-vermelho                

Fairly common.


Violet-capped Woodnymph                                 Thalurania glaucopis                                Beija-flor-de-fronte-violeta                    

Uncommon to rare.


White-throated Hummingbird                                Leucochloris albicollis                                Papo-branco           

Uncommon on the High Trail.


Sapphire-spangled Emerald                                Amazilia lactae                                Beija-flor-de-peito-azul                         

Very like the next species, Glittering-throated Emerald. Sapphire Spangled lacks white tail tips on tail and has a more purple (than blue) throat, Sapphire-spangled is more a forest species.


Glittering-throated Emerald                                 Amazilia fimbriata                                beija-flor-de-garganta-verde        

This species was first seen on track to Centre on 09/11/2004 (BPW). Feeding on a flowering bush at the stream (the first stream from Casa de Barro going towards the Centro after the first big hill). The centre of the belly is white. This species is less common overall than the previous similar species as it is more a cerrado species. See Sapphire-spangled Emerald for the main differences.


Amethyst Woodstar                                Calliphlox amethystina                                Estrelinha               

Rare and seldom encountered, in open areas around the top of the High Trail; especially in the area of the flat volcanic rock.


Trogoniformes Trogonidae                                                                                                

White-tailed Trogon                                Trogon viridis                                Surucua-violeta       

Somewhat strangely listed as ´´apparently extinct in Vicosa area´´ this species was occasionally seen at Iracambi, and if there is any patch of forest left near Vicosa will no doubt still be found there!


Surucua Trogon                                Trogon surrucura aurantius                                 (surucuá-de-peito-azul)                       

First seen along the Secret Valley Trail on 01/11/2004 (BPW) the main difference of this species from White-tailed being belly colour (orange in northern Surucua race and yellow in White-tailed) and tail pattern (the inner webs being black on Surucua and white on White-tailed; hence name). The calls are also somewhat different.


Coraciiformes Alcedinidae                                                                                                 

Ringed Kingfisher                                 Ceryle torquata                                Martim-pescador-grande

Occasionally encountered wherever there is water.


Amazon Kingfisher                                Ceryle amazona                                Martim-pescador-?

First seen at fish ponds 06/12/04, with three present (BPW). If an observer is not familiar with this and Green Kingfisher then they can be confused, even though in reality Amazon is much closer in size to Ringed than Green is to Amazon. Green is quite small, but Amazon Kingfisher always looks large.             


[Green Kingfisher                                Chloroceryle americana                                Martim-pescador-pequeno                  

Not confirmed yet, in past mistaken for Amazon despite size!]


Pygmy Kingfisher                                 Chloroceryle aenea                                Martim-pescador-miudinho

No information on this elusive species.


Piciformes Bucconidae                                                                                                

White-eared Puffbird                                Nystalus chacuru                                Joao-bobo               


Piciformes Ramphastidae                                                                                                

Black-necked Aracari                                 Pteroglossus aracari                                Aracari                   

Sometimes seem in small numbers around the forest at the Centro.


Saffron Toucanet              NT -- --                                Baillonius bailloni

Along the trail towards Itajuru, in the forest at its base (the municipal park) on 10th June 2007 (BPW), 3 birds quietly moved quietly through the forest, one was seen exceptionally well as it viewed the observer.


Piciformes Picidae                                                                                                

White-barred Piculet                                Picumnus cirratus                                Pica-pau-anao-barrado                   

Scarce but also easily overlooked in forest.


Campo Flicker                                 Colaptes campestris                                Pica-pau-do-campo 

Quite common and conspicuous.


Green-barred Woodpecker                                 Colaptes melanochloros                                Pica-pau-verde-barrado                   

Rare in good forest.


Blond-crested Woodpecker                                Celeus flavescens                                Pica-pau-de-cabeca-amarela                   

Uncommon in forest.


Yellow-throated Woodpecker                                Piculus flavigula                                Pica-pau-bufador     



Yellow-browed Woodpecker     NT -- --                                 Piculus aurulentus                                Pica-pau-dourado    

Uncommon in good forest especially found along Graminha Trail.


White Woodpecker                                 Melanerpes candidus                                Birro                       

Fairly common in open areas with dead standing wood, seen particularly around Casa de Barro.


Little Woodpecker                                 Veniliornis passerinus                                Pica-pau-pequeno   

Very scarce in forest and occasionally more lightly wooded areas. Very similar to Yellow-eared, and little good info on the differences. Female Little’s are distinctive with white supercilium and moustachial stripes on greyish cheeks. Male Little’s are more difficult to tell from Yellow-eared, but they completely lack yellow on the nape and the forecrown has no white spots.


Lineated Woodpecker                                 Dryocopus lineatus                                Pica-pau-de-banda-branca                     

Uncommon, can be seen on the edges of forested areas around the Centro and on the High Trail, needs to be checked carefully for much rarer Robust Woodpecker.


Robust Woodpecker             LC LC Th                                 Campephilus robustus                                Pica-pau-rei            

Last record was 1 female, Centro (Carlo Castellani between 19th April to 6th May 2005). Also rarely observed on the Secret Valley Trail, its loud double knock is quite different from the machine gun of Lineated.


Yellow-eared Woodpecker*                                 Veniliornis maculifrons                                 pica-pauzinho-de-testa-pintada           

First seen on the High Trail on 14/12/04 (BPW). This species is very similar to Little Woodpecker, slightly larger and with white streaks on the forehead and a lot of yellow on the nape. It is at least as common as Little Woodpecker, best told by very different call.



Passeriformes Furnariinae                                                                                                

Band-tailed Hornero*                                Furnarius figulus                                Casaca-de-couro-da-lama                       

Slight range extension to Ridgely.


Rufous Hornero                                 Furnarius rufus                                Joao-de-barro          

Common in a variety of habitats.


Pale-breasted Spinetail                                 Synallaxis albescens                                Ui-pi                       

Slight range extension to Ridgely, but o.k. in Souza (2002), probably does not occur as it is more a cerrado species, likely a misidentification of Pallid Spinetail.


Spix's Spinetail                                Synallaxis spixi                                Joao-tenenem         

Heard far more frequently than seen and not uncommon.


Rufous-capped Spinetail                                Synallaxis ruficapilla                                Pichochore             

Heard far more frequently than seen and not uncommon.


Grey-bellied Spinetail                                Synallaxis cinerascens                                Joao-tenenem-da-mata                       

Uncommon and not found in scrub like other species, but only in dense low tangles near the forest floor.


Pallid Spinetail*                                 Cranioleuca pallida                                Arredio-palido        

Rare, sometimes seen in mixed flocks at mid to canopy height, at forest edge. The calls of the Cranioleuca spinetails are all similar but this is the only one in the area. An example of a sighting was around Centro in May 2007.


Yellow-chinned Spinetail                                Certhiaxis cinnamomea                                Curutié                    

This species was miss-identified by early observers, first correctly identified at Angola on 03/11/2004 (BPW).


Common Thornbird                                Phacellodomus rufifrons                                Joao-de-pau            

Common, slight range extension to Ridgely


Firewood Gatherer                                 Anumbius anumbi                                Cochicho                

No pairs actually noted on the Fazenda recently, but apparently occurs close-by, slight range extension to Ridgely


Streaked Xenops                                 Xenops rutilans                                Bico-virado-carijo   

Scarce in good forest, except for its upturned bill resembles Sharp-billed Treehunter.


Sharp-billed Treehunter                                Heliobletus contaminatus                                Bico-virado-do-sul  

Rare in good forest, closely resembles Streaked Xenops except for bill. No recent confirmed records.


Buff-browed Foliage-Gleaner                                 Syndactyla rufosuperciliata                                Lipa-folha-quiete    

Rare, but not as rare or threatened as the extremely similar White-browed Foliage-Gleaner, the best way to tell them apart is by their supercilium, calls and habitat. White-browed is always seen low down usually below 2m off ground and frequently in Chusquea bamboo, Buff-browed is found at mid-levels. Slight range extension to Ridgely, but o.k. in Souza (2002).


Buff-fronted Foliage-Gleaner                                 Philydor rufus                                Limpa-folha-testa-baia                         

Uncommon, closely resembles Ochre-bellied Foliage-Gleaner which could occur here. Check overall colour and the forehead.


White-collared Foliage-Gleaner*                                 Anabazenops fuscus                                Trepador-coleira     



White-eyed Foliage-Gleaner                                Automolus leucophthalmus                                Barranqueiro-de-olho-branco            

Uncommon, but heard far more easily than seen.


Tawny-throated Leaftosser                                Sclerurus mexicanus

First seen on the High Trail near Graminha gate 6th March 2007, the bird was calling and observed for over 5 minutes perched on a branch in the open about 40cm high (BPW).


Rufous-breasted Leaftosser                                Sclerurus scansor                                Vlra-folha-vermelho                               

A difficult species to see, rare on ground level inside good forest on High Trail, listen for rustle of leaves.


Sharp-tailed Streamcreeper                                Lochmias nematura                                Joao-porca              

Fairly common but widespread, found along forested streams often small.


Passeriformes Dendrocolaptinae

Thrush-like Woodcreeper Dendrocincla turdina

On 5th May 2007, a bird at mid-level in a mixed flock was observed at very close quarters (less than 5 metres) by BPW. The bird also called giving its distinctive prolonged (over 30 seconds) ‘kikikiki….’ Call. The bird was superficially like Olivaceous Woodcreeper, but larger and without the contrast in the wing.  Thrush-like also shows a crested look and distinctive white throat which Olivaceous never does, both features seen very well on the observed bird. This species was almost certainly seen, at least once before this confirmed sighting in 2007 but views had proved unsatisfactory. 


Olivaceous Woodcreeper                                 Sittasomus griseicapillus                                Arapacu-verde        

Uncommon in forest.


White-throated Woodcreeper                                 Xiphocolaptes albicollis                                Arapacu-de-garganta-branca      

Rare, check any large woodcreepers for similar species such as Buff-throated and Planalto, which could both occur in this area. Best told on call, the White-throated has a very loud and distinctive call unlike the others.


Scaled Woodcreeper                                 Lepidocolaptes squamatus                                Arapacu-escamado  

This species is scarce and quite similar to Narrow-billed, however it is more strongly patterned below with a black background colour and the bills differ in colour and shape.


Lesser Woodcreeper                                                                 Lepidocolaptes fuscus                                             

This species is scarce and quite similar to Scaled, however it is less strongly patterned and the bills differ in colour and shape. Slight range extension to Ridgely, but o.k. in Souza (2002)


Black-billed Scythebill                                Campylorhamphus falcularius                                Arapacu-de-bico-torto                       

Rare in the good forest along Graminha Trail.


Passeriformes Formicariidae                                                                                                

Tufted Antshrike                                Mackenziaena severa                                Borralhara              

This species can be heard in scrubby areas such as on the Alvorada (Dawn Trail), although you may never see one! Rare.


Large-tailed Antshrike Antshrike                                Mackenziaena leachii

Occasionally heard giving its distinct ‘fee, fee’ x11 or x12 call, that rises in pitch then falls, on hills behind Centro (Dawn Trail area) but never seen!!!


Giant Antshrike                                Batara cinerea                                Matracao                

Rare and even harder top see.


Rufous-capped Antshrike                                 Thamnophilus ruficapillus                                Choca-de-chapeu-vermelho                

Rare, but sometimes seen near the 2nd gate from the Centro.


Eastern Slaty-Antshrike                                Thamnophilus punctatus                                                               

Fairly common in wooded areas.


Variable Antshrike                                 Thamnophilus caerulescens                                Choca-da-mata       

Uncommon to scarce in wooded areas, less common than Eastern Slaty-Antshrike which it closely resembles.


Ferruginous Antbird*                                 Drymophila ferruginea                                Trovoada                

Quite rare on the trails in the nature reserve area (Graminha and the High trail).


White-fringed Antwren Formicivora grisea

First seen, low down and alone on the Secret Valley Trail on 2nd March 2007 (BPW). This species is very similar to Serra Antwren, which seems to have been misidentified as occurring in Brigadeiro State Park, quite apart from the altitude being too high for Serra, the habitat is completely wrong in the state park, as Serra Antwren occurs in arid scrub and bush often in cerrado grasslands. The other confusion species is Rusty-backed Antwren, which again is more a cerrado scrub and forest edge species. White-fringed though also occurring in some of the same areas is the only one of the 3 that inhabits the interior of humid forest, secondary humid forest and edge habitats. I (BPW) have also observed this species at Itajuru, in 2004.


Ochre-rumped Antbird*            NT -- --                                Drymophila ochropyga                                Trovoada-ocre        

Rare on the trails in the nature reserve area (Graminha and the High trail).


White-shouldered Fire-Eye                                Pyriglena leucoptera                                Papa-taoca             

Quite rare on the trails in the nature reserve area (Graminha and the High trail).


Passeriformes Conopophagidae                                                                                                

Rufous Gnateater                                Conopophaga lineata                                Chupa-dente           

Uncommon but widespread in forested areas.


Passeriformes Rhinocryptidae                                                                                                

Mouse-coloured Tapaculo                                Scytalopus speluncae                                Tapaculo-preto       

Rare in forested areas.


Passeriformes Tyranninae                                                                                                  

Yellow-bellied Elaenia                                Elaenia flavogaster                                Guaracavaode-barriga-amarela       

No confirmed records, there may be several species present at Iracambi, including this species, maybe Large Eleania, Olivaceous Elaenia and Lesser Eleania, though only the latter has been satifactorily confirmed.


Lesser Elaenia Elaenia mesoleuca

A bird first identified as Olivaceous Elaenia Elaenia mesoleuca first seen on the Nature Trail on 13/11/04 (BPW) which did not call may have in fact have been Lesser Elaenia as this has been confirmed since by its unique call. The 2 species look almost identical.


Highland Elaenia                                Elaenia obscura

Some large Eleanias with dusky breasts and mucky yellow on lower below have been causing confusion. They however have only 2 wing bars not 3 as Large Eleania would and are therefore most likely to be Highland Eleanias. The calls were infrequent but fitted this species. Seen at Iracambi and Itajuru in May and June 2007.


Sooty Tyrannulet

Seen and photographed at Angola by Muffi Forbes. New for Iracambi (2005).


Southern Beardless-Tyrannulet                                 Camptostoma obsoletum                                Risadinha                

Uncommon is scrubby and edge habitats.


Planalto Tyrannulet                                 Phyllomyias fasciatus                                Piolhinho               

Seen often, as a pair around the trees of the marsh at Centro, in summer (BPW).


Southern Bristle-Tyrant            NT -- --                                Phylloscartes eximius                                Barbudinho             

Surprisingly similar to Sepia-capped Flycatcher and Yellow-olive Flycatcher in the books in face pattern, but more contrasting colours of black and white. It is actually a tyrannulet, but unlike many other species in these families keeps lower down in the mid-canopy. This species is not confirmed for Iracambi.


Sepia-capped Flycatcher                                Leptopogon amaurocephalus                                Cabecudo                

Uncommon in wooded areas, sits upright and is much less active than any tyrannulet, spending long periods perched in easy view in the mid-canopy.


Grey-hooded Flycatcher                                 Mionectes rufiventris                                Abre-asa-de-cabeca-cinza                       

Fairly common, especially at certain times of the year, along trails around the Centro, particularly Nature Trail. Superficially like Grey-hooded Attila but much smaller than that species.


Eared Pygmy-Tyrant                                Myiornis auricularis                                Miudinho                

Uncommon in open forest, scrub and marginal haitats. No recent records, old records may have been misidentified (White-throated Spadebill or Orche-faced Tody-Flycatcher).


Orche-faced Tody-Flycatcher                                 Todirostrum plumbeiceps                                Ferreirinho-de-cara-canela                     

Uncommon but widespread in forest and scrub.


Common Tody-Flycatcher                                 Todirostrum cinereum coloreum                                Relógio o ferreirinho              

First 25/11/04 at dairy (BPW), note the race here has an olive back (not dark grey) and is therefore the same colour as Yellow-lored.


Yellow-lored Tody-Flycatcher*                                 Todirostrum poliocephalum                                Ferreirinho             

This and Common Tody-Flycatcher are known to occur together, this species prefers forest.


Southern Antpipit                                 Corythopis delalandi                                Estalador-do-sul      

One was seen on the Secret Valley Trail 23rd April (BPW).


White-throated Spadebill                                 Platyrinchus mystaceus                                Patinho                  

Uncommon, more frequent in good forest.

Yellow-olive Flycatcher                                Tolmomyias sulphurescens                                Bico-chato-de-orelha-preta            

Very common and easily confused, best told by call. This species at times looks like Southern Bristle-Tyrant, Sepia-capped Flycatcher or even Mottle-cheeked or PlanaltoTyrannulet! Good views are needed in the often shaded areas it is fond of.


Bran-coloured Flycatcher                                Myiophobus fasciatus (rufescens)                                Filipe                      

Probably not uncommon, however this might be biased by the frequent sighting of the species around the Centro.


Euler's Flycatcher                                 Empidonax euleri                                Enferrujado             

Found more inside good forest and not in open areas as Bran-coloured usually is.


Tropical Pewee                                Contopus cinereus                                Papa-moscas-cinzento                 


Cliff Flycatcher                                 Hirundinea ferruginea                                Gibao-de-couro       

Rare, occasionally seen perched on large boulders along the streams.


Grey Monjita                                Xolmis cinerea                                Maria-branca          


White-rumped Monjita                                 Xolmis velata                                Noivinha-branca     

Rare on hilly pasture with mature trees such as some areas around Casa de Barro.


Yellow-browed Tyrant                                Satrapa icterophrys                                Suiriri-pequeno        

First seen at Casa de Barro on 24/11/04 (BPW), and baffling why this frequent and distinctive (if scarce) species was not recorded before.


Cattle Tyrant                                Machetornis rixosus                                Suiriri-cavaleiro      

Common in areas of pasture.


Streamer-tailed Tyrant                                 Gubernetes yetapa                                Tesoura-do-brejo    

Scarce in marshy areas.


Shear-tailed Grey-Tyrant                                Muscipipra vetula                                Tesourinha-cinza    

First seen at the top of the Dawn Trail on 18/11/04 (BPW), rare and does not seemingly occur lower down.


Masked Water Tyrant                                Fluvicola nengeta                                Lavadeira-mascarada                               

Common and conspicuous.


White-headed Marsh-Tyrant                                Arundinicola leucocephala Lavadeira-de-cabeca-branca o freirinha                 

Rare but regularly encountered where there is marsh and water near Casa de Barro.


Grey-hooded Attila*                                 Attila rufus                                Capitao-de-saira      

Uncommon but frequently encountered. Superficially like Grey-hooded Flycatcher but much larger than that species, and the Attila has a very loud and distinctive call which it gives frequently.


Short-crested Flycatcher                                Myiarchus ferox                                Maria-cavaleira       

The commonest Myiarchus on the Fazenda, best told by voice, looking most like Swainson’s.


Swainson’s Flycatcher                                Myiarchus ferox

Overlooked in the past, but not particularly rare in summer at least, this difficult species is best told from other Myiarchus by voice and the presence of any pink in the colour of the base of the bill, which no other Myiarchus shows as much of if any.


Boat-billed Flycatcher                                Megarhynchus pitangua                                Neinei                     

Uncommon but widespread.


Great Kiskadee                                Pitangus sulphuratus                                Bentevi                   

Common and widespread.


Social Flycatcher                                Myiozetetes similis Bentevizinho-penacho-vermelho  

Uncommon and widespread.


Streaked Flycatcher                                 Myiodynastes maculatus                                Bentevi-rajado        

Uncommon and widespread, large with large bill and easy to learn call.


Piratic Flycatcher                                Legatus leucophaius                                Bentevi-pirata        

Rare and difficult to tell from Variegated Flycatcher, but mainly the small size and small bill and call are enough.


Variegated Flycatcher                                Empidonomus varius                                Peitica

Not always easy to discern from Piratic Flycatcher, the main difference apart from voice being that it is a large flycatcher, not quite as large as Variegated, but with a small bill.


Tropical Kingbird                                 Tyrannus melancholicus                                Suiriri                      


White-throated Kingbird                                 Tyrannus albogularis                                Suiriri-de-arganta-branca                     

Rare, not seen in recent years on the Fazenda or in neighboring areas, slight range extension to Ridgely, but o.k. in Souza (2002). Early records are probably misidentifications.


Fork-tailed Flycatcher                                Tyrannus savana                                Tesourinha             

Uncommon, birds are migrant.


Velvety Tyrant Knipolegus nigerrimus

Along streams (Carlo Castellani between 19th April to 6th May 2005).


Crested Black-Tyrant                                 Knipolegus lophotes                                Maria-preta-de-penacho                  

Uncommon, seen in pasture around Casa de Barro.


Mottle-cheeked Tyrannulet                                 Phylloscartes ventralis

First seen on Graminha Trail 5/01/07 and the bird was calling (BPW).


Passeriformes Cotingidae                                                                                                

Green-backed Becard                                 Pachyramphus viridis                                Caneleiro-verde      

Rare in good forest.


White-winged Becard                                Pachyramphus polychopterus                                Caneleiro-preto      

Quite rare in forest, difficult to be sure of identification from Black-capped Becard without a decent view, which usually is not easy! Becards are not infrequent in the High Trail area, but most are not identifiable.


Black-capped Becard                                Pachyramphus marginatus                                Caneleiro-borado    

Quite rare in forest, difficult to be sure of identification from Black-capped Becard without a decent view, which usually is not easy!


Black-crowned Tityra                                Tityra inquisitor                                Araponguinha-de-cara-preta               

Quite rare in forest.


Passeriformes Pipridae                                                                                                

Thrush-like Mourner                                Schiffornis turdinus                                Flautlm-marrom     

No recent records.


Greenish Mourner                                Schiffornis virescens                                Flautim-verde         

No recent records.


Blue Manakin                                 Chiroxiphia caudata                                Tangara                  

Common and widespread, much more often heard than seen.


White-bearded Manakin                                Manacus manacus                                Rendeira                 

A female first seen on Nature Trail 21/02/02 (Jeff Ott); lek found on Dawn Trail 18/12/04 (BPW). Also heard in other areas such as close to the start of Secret Valley Trail.


Pin-tailed Manakin*                                 Ilicura militaris                                Tangarazinho         

Rare, seen in forest around Graminha usually in winter. Males are unmistakable and make a rustling noise when flying, but females are best told by their yellow eyes.


Sharpbill                                Oxyruncus cristatus                                Bico-agudo              

Rare, seen in forest around Itajuru, not aware of any recent records actually on the Fazenda.

Bare-throated Bellbird       VU -- VU                                Procnias nudicollis                                Arapongo               

Rare, seen in forest on High Trail and around Graminha, birds are most often immature males, probably forced away to these marginal areas from the good primary forest around Itajuru by more mature males there.


Oscine Passerines                                                                                                

Passeriformes Corvidae                                                                                                  

Curl-crested Jay                                Cyanocorax cristatellus                                Gralha-do-cerrado   

Rare around pastures towards High Trail, slight range extension to Ridgely


Passeriformes Hirundinidae                                                                                                  

Brown-chested Martin                                Phaeoprogne tapera                                Andorinha-serrador 

Rare, migrant birds are probably involved.


Grey-breasted Martin                                Progne chalybea                                Andorinha-domestica-grande    

Rare, migrant birds are probably involved.


White-rumped Swallow                                Tachycineta leucorrhoa                                Andorinha-de-rabadilha-branca      

Rare, migrant birds are probably involved.


Blue-and-white Swallow                                Notiochelidon cyanoleuca                                Andorinha-pequena-de-casa                    

Common and widespread, several pairs are always present.


Southern Rough-winged Swallow                                Stelgidopteryx ruficollis                                Andorinha-serrador 

Can be common and widespread, regularly one or 2 birds around; migrant birds are probably involved.


Passeriformes Troglodytidae                                                                                                

Black-capped Donacobius                                Donacobius atricapillus                                Japacanim               

Seen in marsh and pasture just past the first bridge from the Centro.


House Wren                                Troglodytes aedon                                Corruira                  

Common and widespread, many pairs are always present.


Passeriformes Turdidae                                                                                                

Rufous-bellied Thrush                                Turdus rufiventris                                Sabia-leranjeira       

Common and widespread, several pairs are always present.


Creamy-bellied Thrush                                Turdus amaurochalinus                                Sabia-poca              

Uncommon and local, few birds present.


Pale-breasted Thrush                                Turdus leucomelas                                Sabia-barranco        

Common and widespread, several pairs are always present.


White-necked Thrush                                 Turdus albicollis                                Sabia-coleira           



Yellow-legged Thrush                                Platycichla flavipes                                sabiaúna                  

A First seen perched at the top of a small tree at the top of the High Trail, near the flat volcanic rock area, on 14/12/04 (BPW). The yellow legs on this male were clearly visible.


Passeriformes Mimidae                                                                                                

Chalk-browed Mockingbird                                Mimus saturninus                                Sabia-do-campo      

Uncommon, single birds occasionally seen.


Passeriformes Motacillidae                                                                                                

Yellowish Pipit                                Anthus lutescens                                Caminheiro-zumbidor

Migrant, when on passage can occur in some numbers in pastures, when their distinctive calls hail their presence.


Passeriformes Vireonidae                                                                                                

Rufous-browed Peppershrike                                 Cyclarhis gujanensis                                Pitiguari

Rare in forest on the High Trail.              


Red-eyed Vireo                                Vireo olivaceus chivi                                Juruviara

This is the non-migratory race and single birds can be occasionally seen in areas with forest with open patches and edge habitat.


Rufous-crowned Greenlet                                Hylophilus poicilotis                                Verdinho-coroado

Uncommon, often in a mixed flock, fast and active.


Passeriformes Parulinae                                                                                                

Masked Yellowthroat                                Geothlypis aequinoctialis                                Pia-cobra

Uncommon but widespread, usually in marshy areas.


Golden-crowned Warbler                                Basileuterus culicivorus                                Pula-pula

Quite common in forest areas.


Passeriformes Thraupinae                                                                                                

Blue Dacnis                                Dacnis cayana                                Sai-azul                   

Uncommon and often with mixed flocks, but regularly seen.


Bananaquit                                Coereba flaveola                                Cambacica              

Uncommon but regularly seen.


Chestnut-vented Conebill                                Conirostrum speciosum                                Figuinha-de-crisso-castanho                 

Uncommon but regularly seen.


Rufous-headed Tanager*                                Hemithraupis ruficapilla                                Saira-da-mata          



Hooded Tanger                                Nemosia pileata                                Saíra-de-chapéu-preto                      



Orange-headed Tanager                                Thlypopsis sordida                                Saira-canario           



Burnished-buff Tanager                                 Tangara cayana                                Saira-amarelo          

Common and widespread.


Brassy-breasted Tanager*                                 Tangara desmaresti                                Saira-lagarta            

Uncommon and widespread. Only seen in the High Trail area often in mixed flocks.


Gilt-edged Tanager*    LC -- -- IBA 075                                Tangara cyanoventris                                Douradinha             

Common and widespread. Seen at lower altitudes than Brassy-breasted Tanager often as a single species flock.


Purple-throated Euphonia                                Euphonia chlorotica                                Gaturamo-fi-fi        



Blue-naped Chlorophonia                                Chlorophonia cyanea                                Gaturamo-rei          



Swallow Tanager                                 Tersina viridis                                Sai-andorinha          

Quite rare but regular, especially around Centro.


Palm Tanager                                Thraupis palmarum                                Sanhaco-de-coqueiro                               



Diademed Tanager Stephanophorus diadematus

New for Iracambi, between Centro and Pico Graminha often low down and skulking, particularly in bamboo behind Centro (Carlo Castellani between 19th April to 6th May 2005).


Golden-chevroned Tanager*                                Thraupis ornata                                Sanhaco-de-encontro-amarelo   

Quite common and widespread.


Sayaca Tanager                                Thraupis sayaca                                Sanhaco-de-fogo     

Common and widespread.


Hepatic Tanager                                Piranga flava                                Sanhaco-de-fogo     

Rare and not often seen, slight range extension to Ridgely


Brazilian Tanager*                                Ramphocelus bresilius                                Tie-sangue              

Rare and not seen very often, a male used to frequent the borders along the driveway to Casa de Barro, but has not been seen recently.


Flame-crested Tanager                                Tachyphonus cristatus                                Tiê-galo                  

First seen at Nature Trail on 10/11/04 (BPW), it moved fast in a small mixed flock and was difficult to get a good view of, but luckily I was able to see the cream patches for just long enough.


Ruby-crowned Tanager                                Tachyphonus coronatus                                Tie-preto                

Common and widespread. The female may be mistaken for the rare Brown Tanager, calls are different.


Brown Tanager*                      NT -- --                                Orchesticus abeillei                                Tiê-pardo               

Rare and not easy to identify from various foliage-gleaners and especially female Ruby-crowned Tanager, care is needed. Seen infrequently on the top of the High Trail, though also sometimes observed on Nature Trail.


Black-goggled Tanager                                Trichthraupis melanops                                Tie-de-topete         

Uncommon and widespread.


Cinnamon Tanager                                Schistochlamys ruficapillus                                Bico-de-veludo        

Rare, seen in good forest along High Trail etc.


Magpie Tanager                                Cissopis leveriana                                Tietinga                  

Uncommon but widespread, can be seen in any forested patch.


Passeriformes Icterinae                                                                                                 

Chopi Blackbird                                Gnorimopsar chopi                                                               

Not observed on Fazenda recently, was previously seen on pasture towards High Trail.


White-browed Blackbird                                Sturnella superciliaris                                Policia-inglesa-do-sul                           

Rare in pasture areas.


Chestnut-capped Blackbird                                Agelaius ruficapillus                                Garibaldi                 

Quite common in marshes and pasture below Casa de Barro.


Shiny Cowbird                                  Molothrus bonariensis                                Chopim                  

Uncommon and not seen in numbers, occasional in pasture.


Passeriformes Cardinalinae                                                                                                 

Green-winged Saltator                                Saltator similis                                Trinca-ferro-verdadeiro               

Uncommon but regularly seen.


Passeriformes Emberizinae                                                                                                 

Blackish-blue Seedeater      NT Th VU                                Amaurospiza moesta                                Cigarrinha-da-taquara                    

Only one record from High Trail area, not recorded for 6 years (Fung Yee Lam & Jennifer Wilkening, May 2001), this fast declining chusquea bamboo specialist may already have been extirpated. 


Blue-black Grassquit                                Volatinia jacarina                                Tiziu                       

Common and widespread.


Sooty Grassquit                                Tiaris fuliginosa                                Cigarra-do-coqueiro

Rare and identification not so straightforward. Often found with seedeaters, which may or may not contain Blue-black Grassquits.


Yellow-bellied Seedeater                                Sporophila nigricollis                                Baiano                    

Common and widespread in seeding grass.


Double-collared Seedeater                                Sporophila caerulescens                                Coleirinho              

Common and widespread in seeding grass.


White-bellied Seedeater                                Sporophila leucoptera                                Patativa-chorona    

Rare and local, seen on edge of forest above Eucalyptus Trail.


Cinereous Warbling-Finch*   VU Th VU                                Poospiza cinerea                                Capacetinho-do-oco-do-pau             

Only one record from High Trail area, not recorded for 6 years (Fung Yee Lam & Jennifer Wilkening, May 2001), this area is an extension to its known range, (but also found at Brigaderio) but this fast declining species may already have been extirpated. It was noted as "virtually unrecorded in recent years" by Ridgely (1996). There could be identification problems involved with these records.


Red-rumped Warbling-Finch                                Poospiza lateralis                                Quete                      

First seen at Nature Trail 13/11/2004 (BPW). This colourful bird is easy to identify, but must be quite rare or engaged in movements as it has not been recorded since.


Pectoral Sparrow                                 Arremon taciturnus                                Tico-tico-do-mato-de-bico-preto          



Rufous-collared Sparrow                                 Zonotrichia capensis                                Tico-tico                

Common and widespread.


Grassland Sparrow                                Ammodramus humeralis                                Tico-tico-do-campo-verdadeiro   

Not uncommon in drier grass areas.

Great Pampa-Finch                                 Embernagra platensis                                Sabia-do-banhado



Wedge-tailed Grass-Finch                                 Emberizoides herbicola                                Canario-do-campo  

Uncommon in marshy areas.


Grey Pileated Finch                                Coryphospingus pileatus                                Galinho-da-serra     



Saffron Finch                                Sicalis flaveola                                Canario-da-terra     

Common and widespread.


Grassland Yellow-Finch                                Sicalis luteola                                Canario-tipio          

First seen start/end High Trail near Graminha on 16/12/2004 (BPW). Rare, more common but overlooked in open country, no streaking below.


INTRODUCED AND FERAL SPECIES                                                                               



Helmeted Guineafowl                                Numida meleagris                                                               

Passeriformes Emberizinae                                                                                                 

House Sparrow                                Passer domesticus                                Pardal-comum        

This species appeared at CG, late 2002.


Taxonomy follows Sick, H. (1998) for non-passerines, and Ridgely, R. (1989, 1994) for passerines

* indicates an endemic species                                                                      

International status follow Birdlife International: E?=probably extinct; EN=endangered; VU=vulnerable;       

Th=Threatened; NT=near threatened; LC=least concern on Red List of birds                   

The same letters in blue implies the same designations but at national level

The same letters in black implies the same designations but at state level, (Minas Gerais)        

National and State status follow Fundacao Biodiversitas (1998)                                

IBA=Important Bird Area and refers to restricted range species as Birdlife International          



[Small-billed Tinamou                                Crypturellus parvirostris                                Inhambu-chororo    

Reported by Mauro Guimaraes Diniz, there are no details and the species has not been reported since. This species like other cerrado species needs better evidence of occurrence. The record could be attributable to either of the other 2 species of tinamou present, as this species prefers more open and dry habitats. Having said this it could still occur in this area, but more verification is required.] Pending


[Lesser Yellow-headed Vulture Cathartes burrovianus

This species like other cerrado species needs better evidence of occurrence. The following illustrates the problems of identification. (Carlo Castellani between 19th April to 6th May 2005) Cathartes vultures were very common (always observed in flight). The texts available do not permitted me to distinguish the three species of Cathartes vultures in the field. I have not considered C. melambrotos because out of range. The habitat of the location considered (very hilly and cultivated) is not typical for C. burrovianus and would suit the by far more widespread C. aura, but when I had the opportunity to judge colour of skin and beak, those always appeared more typical of C. burrovianus; in one individual I could clearly observe white shafts of primaries on upper side of wings.


This is a lowland grassland species very unlikely here, depending on subspecies and plumage Turkey Vultures can show some white above and have a lot of yellow on head. More important is pure yellow head, white bill and feet and flight profile (flat wings). I have seen birds myself that I thought to be Lesser Yellow-headed, only to change my mind when I saw the real thing elsewhere.] Pending.


[Blue-chinned Sapphire Chlorestes notatus

About 2 sightings, Centro (Carlo Castellani between 19th April to 6th May 2005).


Following more info from CC this record is not accepted, as he had not eliminated the possibility of other similar species at the time.] Pending.


 [Sooty-fronted Spinetail Synallaxis frontalis

Centro (Carlo Castellani between 19th April to 6th May 2005).


It will have been Pale-breasted. Sooty does not occur in this area (except by misidentification) and anyway only occurs in drier bush, scrub and woodland edge (not grass areas). This species like other true cerrado species needs better evidence of occurrence.] Pending.