Use this sheet for any information on an observation of vertebrates which you cannot include on the Excel Iracambi Recording Sheet. But please also mark it on that Excel sheet as well. This additional information is particularly important for any rare or scarce species and for any behavioural notes. Do not worry if you think your notes are trivial, include them anyway and the chief recorder Bryan Wainwright(BPW) will sort it.

Do not forget to include vital details such as your name (or initials if your name is noted elsewhere), date and place of observation. The notes here are repeated somewhat on the Verification of Birds Recorded at Iracambi document, especially for records of new species, and this is inevitable. Records rejected here are in red, and obviously do not appear on the verified list.


The comments following all records are by Bryan Wainwright, chief recorder (BPW), however if you wish to add comments of your own to any record please do so with your initials; however, please do not alter or delete any comments (or records!) already present.

Bryan Wainwright, February 2007



White-faced Tree Duck Dendrocygna viduata Irere

First seen 03/10/03 (Jeff Ott) unmistakable and recorded since.



Whistling Heron Syrigma sibilatrix Maria-faceira

First seen in the meadows on 24/12/04 (BPW). These unmistakable birds were noted several times here after rains.


Plumbeous Kite Ictinia plumbea Gaviao-sauveiro

First seen over the Centre on 25/12/04 (BPW). This very distinctive grey bird with rufous primaries from below, was seen well over the Centro, in good light on more than one occasion, but not since. Undoubtedly rare in the area.


Mantled Hawk Leucopternis polionota Gaviao-pomba

First seen as it landed just in front of me (20m) in the forest of the High Trail. I expected it to be White-necked Hawk but on closer inspection the lower half of the tail was completely white, without the black sub-terminal band of White-necked Hawk. Mantled Hawk has never been recorded in this area though there is no reason why it should not occur, as its range extends over this area and the habitat is ideal. Some other features of this bird were not quite right for either species and this is the reason for not adding it to the official list. There was only a single white spots on the folded wing, which is closer to White-necked Hawk but this feature may have been because the bird was in moult. Note the black tail band of White-necked Hawk would still show on a bird in moult. The call was very like White-necked Hawk, though Mantled Hawk is supposed to have a similar call anyway. Seen several times in December 2004 by BPW. Later examination of stuffed birds confirmed it as Mantled Hawk.


Great Black Hawk Buteogallus urubitinga Gavião-preto

First seen over the Centre on 12/12/04 (BPW). This large black raptor is unlikely to be confused, at least in this area, the tail pattern is diagnostic.


Crane Hawk Geranospiza caerulescens gavião-pernilongo

First seen over the Centre on 21/12/04 (BPW).


Aplomado Falcon Falco femoralis Falcao-de-coleira

First seen over Angola on 16/11/04 (BPW). This large, long-winged and distinctive patterned falcon is rare in this area.


Purple Gallinule Porphyrula martinica Frango-d'agua-azul

First seen at pond at Angola on 03/11/04 (BPW). Has since bred at the fish ponds (RLB).


Pale-vented Pigeon Columba cayennensis pomba-galega

First seen on track to Centre on 20/12/2004, common, obviously overlooked before (BPW).


Plain Parakeet Brotogeris tirica first seen on track to Centre on 11/12/2004 (BPW).

The blue on the wings of this species may cause confusion in flight with Blue-winged Macaw, however the call is different and my observation was of perched birds, which are easy to tell, due to the difference in head and face markings.


Glittering-throated Emerald  Amazilia fimbriata beija-flor-de-garganta-verde

First seen on track to Centre on 09/11/2004 (BPW). Feeding on a flowering bush at the stream (the first stream from Casa de Barro going towards the Centro after the first big hill). The centre of the belly is white.


White-tailed Trogon Trogon viridis Surucua-violeta

Apparently extinct in Vicosa area. Not often seen but rarely occurs in better forested parts. Differs from Surucua mainly in yellow underparts and all underside of the tail being all white (barred in females and immature males).


Surucua Trogon Trogon surrucura aurantius  (surucuá-de-peito-azul)

First seen along the Secret Valley Trail on 01/11/2004 (BPW). Differs from White-tailed in having a red belly and the inner webs of the undertail being black.


Green Kingfisher Chloroceryle americana Martim-pescador-pequeno

First seen at fish ponds 06/12/04, three present (BPW).


Yellow-eared Woodpecker* Veniliornis maculifrons  pica-pauzinho-de-testa-pintada

First seen on the High Trail on 14/12/04 (BPW). This species is very similar to Little Woodpecker, slightly larger and with white streaks on the forehead and a lot of yellow on the nape.


Band-tailed Hornero* Furnarius figulus Casaca-de-couro-da-lama

Slight range extension to Ridgely.


Pale-breasted Spinetail  Synallaxis albescens Ui-pi

Slight range extension to Ridgely, but o.k. in Souza (2002).


Yellow-chinned Spinetail Certhiaxis cinnamomea Curutié

Regularly encountered near water, first correctly identified at Angola on 03/11/2004 (BPW).


Common Thornbird Phacellodomus rufifrons Joao-de-pau

Slight range extension to Ridgely.


Firewood Gatherer  Anumbius anumbi Cochicho

Slight range extension to Ridgely.


Buff-browed Foliage-Gleaner  Syndactyla rufosuperciliata Lipa-folha-quiete

Slight range extension to Ridgely, but o.k. in Souza (2002).


Lesser Woodcreeper Lepidocolaptes fuscus

This species is scarce and quite similar to Scaled, however it is less strongly patterned and the bills differ in colour and shape. Slight range extension to Ridgely, but o.k. in Souza (2002)


Olivaceous Elaenia Elaenia mesoleuca Tuque

First seen on the Nature Trail on 13/11/04 (BPW). Of the few species of elaenia that could occur in this area at this altitude this one is the most distinctive, having a mucky yellow chest.


Common Tody-Flycatcher  Todirostrum cinereum coloreum Relógio o ferreirinho

First seen on 25/11/04 at the dairy, note the race here has an olive back (not dark grey) and is the same as Yellow-lored.


Yellow-browed Tyrant Satrapa icterophrys Suiriri-pequeno

First seen at Casa de Barro on 24/11/04 (BPW). An obvious species identification wise, obviously overlooked since regular and since photographed.


Shear-tailed Grey-Tyrant Muscipipra vetula Tesourinha-cinza

First seen at the top of the Dawn Trail on 18/11/04 (BPW). Now regularly found at higher elevations, overlooked before.


White-throated Kingbird  Tyrannus albogularis Suiriri-de-arganta-branca

Slight range extension to Ridgely, but o.k. in Souza (2002). This species, if it actually does occur must be rare. Tropical Kingbirds are frequently misidentified as this species because they too have a pale throat, which is not yellow (it is mucky white). White-throated shows a marked contrast between head and throat colour which should be obvious, if it is not then it is not this species.

White-bearded Manakin Manacus manacus Rendeira

Female first seen on Nature Trail. No details for 21/02/02 (Jeff Ott); lek found on Dawn Trail18/12/04 (BPW). This species is readily identified when lekking due to its loud firecracker wing snaps. A lek may comprise entirely immature males, which are all green like the females. When seen alone males always show a white bearded throat and dark eye, females have an almost white belly and dark eye.


Curl-crested Jay Cyanocorax cristatellus Gralha-do-cerrado

First seen on Nature Trail (Jeff Ott) 10/12/2001 slight range extension to Ridgely. This species has been seen regularly since.


Yellow-legged Thrush Platycichla flavipes sabiaúna

First seen perched at the top of a small tree at the top of the High Trail, near the flat volcanic rock area, on 14/12/04 (BPW). The yellow legs on this male were clearly visible.


Hepatic Tanager Piranga flava Sanhaco-de-fogo

Slight range extension to Ridgely. Occasionally seen between the Centro and High Trail.


Flame-crested Tanager Tachyphonus cristatus Tiê-galo

First seen at Nature Trail on 10/11/04 (BPW), it moved fast in a small mixed flock and was difficult to get a good view of, but luckily I did.


Red-rumped Warbling-Finch Poospiza lateralis Quete

First seen at Nature Trail 13/11/2004 (BPW). This colourful bird is easy to identify, but must be quite rare or engaged in movements as it has not been recorded since.


Grassland Yellow-Finch Sicalis luteola Canario-tipio

First seen start/end High Trail near Graminha on 16/12/2004 (BPW). Rare, more an open country bird, no streaking below.



Tawny-headed Swallow Alopochelidon fucata

Common in the valleys (Carlo Castellani between 19th April to 6th May 2005).

This species has not been recorded any closer than Rio, probably winter Cliff Swallow (percomms with CC). Rejected.


Robust Woodpecker Campephilus robustus

1 female, Centro (Carlo Castellani between 19th April to 6th May 2005).

Following more info from CC this record is accepted, as he had eliminated the possibility of Lineated Woodpecker at the time.


[Lesser Yellow-headed Vulture Cathartes burrovianus

Cathartes vultures were very common (always observed in flight). The texts available do not permitted me to distinguish the three species of Cathartes vultures in the field. I have not considered C. melambrotos because out of range. The habitat of the location considered (very hilly and cultivated) is not typical for C. burrovianus and would suit the by far more widespreadC. aura, but when I had the opportunity to judge colour of skin and beak, those always appeared more typical of C. burrovianus; in one individual I could clearly observe white shafts of primaries on upper side of wings. (Carlo Castellani between 19th April to 6th May 2005).


This is a lowland grassland species very unlikely here, depending on subspecies and plumage Turkey Vultures can show some white above and have a lot of yellow on head. More important for Lesser Yellow-headed is that it has a pure yellow head, white bill and feet and flat wings flight profile. I have seen birds myself that I thought to be Lesser Yellow-headed, only to change my mind when I saw the real thing elsewhere. [This species like other true cerrado species needs better evidence of occurrence.] Pending.


Blue-chinned Sapphire Chlorestes notatus

About 2 sightings, Centro (Carlo Castellani between 19th April to 6th May 2005). Was more likely Purple-crowned Woodnymph, and not enough evidence to suggest otherwise. Rejected.

Following more info from CC this record is accepted, as he had eliminated the possibility of other similar species at the time.


White-vented Violet-ear Colibri serrirostris

1 singing, coffee plantation, Eastern slope of Pico Graminha (Carlo Castellani between 19th April to 6th May 2005).

Following more info from CC this record is accepted, as he had eliminated the possibility of other similar species at the time.


Velvety Tyrant Knipolegus nigerrimus

Along streams (Carlo Castellani between 19th April to 6th May 2005).

Following more info from CC this record is accepted, as he had eliminated the possibility of other similar species at the time.


Slaty Bristlefront Merulaxis ater

1 female, forest, Southern slope of Pico Graminha (Carlo Castellani between 19th April to 6th May 2005).

An excellent record, but please supply detail, would be new for Iracambi. Please detail how you managed to see this virtually impossible to see species, did you use voice playback? Following more info from CC this record is rejected, as he could not eliminated the possibility of other similar species at the time, the evidence is quite plausible but the views were unfortunately inconclusive. Rejected. Probably a Leaf-tosser.


Collared Forest-Falcon Micrastur semitorquatus

1 ad. + 1 juv., Centro (Carlo Castellani between 19th April to 6th May 2005).

Humm, seems everyone sees forest-falcons, but only in open grass areas, but no-one sees Sharp-shinned Hawks! This is almost definitely Sharp-shinned Hawk, which looks practically the same. Also forest-falcons are very vocal, if there were any about I would have heard them, but I have never recorded any forest-falcon at Iracambi.

Following lengthy info from CC this record is accepted, as he had eliminated the possibility of other similar species at the time. Though the species must be very rare here as it is never heard.


Grey Elaenia Myiopagis caniceps

Pastures, Southern slope of Pico Itajuru (Carlo Castellani between 19th April to 6th May 2005).

Definitely not. This is a strict forest canopy species and would never be found elsewhere, it is totally unlike other elaenias in its habits being much more like a tyrannulet. What he saw may have been White-crested Elaenia, which looks grey in strong light. Rejected.


Lesser Swallow-tailed Swift Panyptila cayanensis

One, main road North of Centro (Carlo Castellani between 19th April to 6th May 2005).

Another excellent record, but please supply detail! Would be new for Iracambi. Following more info from CC this record is accepted, as he had eliminated the possibility of other similar species at the time.


Diademed Tanager Stephanophorus diadematus

Between Centro and Pico Graminha often low down and skulking, particularly in bamboo behind Centro (Carlo Castellani between 19th April to 6th May 2005).

Another excellent record, but please supply detail, would be new for Iracambi. Following more info from CC this record is accepted, as he had eliminated the possibility of other similar species at the time.


[Sooty-fronted Spinetail Synallaxis frontalis

Centro (Carlo Castellani between 19th April to 6th May 2005).

It will have been Pale-breasted. Sooty does not occur in this area (except by misidentification) and anyway only occurs in drier bush, scrub and woodland edge (not grass areas). This species like other true cerrado species needs better evidence of occurrence.] Pending.


Sooty Tyrannulet

Seen at Angola by Muffi Forbes. New for Iracambi.



Sooty Tyrannulet

Seen again and photographed at Angola by Muffi Forbes.



Brown Tinamou Crypturellus obsoletus

The distinctive policemen’s whistles of a series of short calls that gets louder and more strident (high pitch) before ending abruptly can frequently be heard in the High Trail area (BPW).


Mantled Hawk* VU Th EN Leucopternis polionota

It was seen perched at the top of the High Trail on Tuesday 14th February, in prominent position on east side of the flat volcanic rock area (BPW). The bird was perched near the top of a taller tree with open branches and few leaves, and was calling (high whistle, about 3 seconds long). All the bird was visible, including the tail, the terminal half of which was pure white. The observation lasted for around 5 minutes before the bird took off in a north direction. The bird was pure white except the browner wings and base of tail. The wings above were quite broadly edged white on the trailing edge.


Sharp-shinned Hawk Accipiter striatus Gaviaozinho

First seen flying and perched in open areas at the Centre on 19/01/07 (BPW). The main identification being the sparrowhawk shape, slender form, bright red iris and tail pattern. This species is easily mistaken for certain other species namely Roadside Hawk, Barred Forest-Falcon and Tiny Hawk. It may be told from the former by its smaller, slender shape and paler face and different tail colours, and may be told from the forest-falcon on habits mainly, as the forest-falcon inhabits mature forest interiors and would not be seen in open areas; it has all dark cheeks unlike the hawk and a completely different tail pattern. It most resembles the rare (or under-recorded) Tiny Hawk, however the iris of Tiny Hawk is yellow not red, Sharp-shinned lacks the white supercilium of Tiny Hawk instead having a pale almost white face. On the bird I saw the iris colour was ruby red and the tail was clearly seen as well as other features.


Dusky-legged Guan             LC Th VU                         Penelope obscura

Mostly only heard, so numbers cannot be given, mostly however they are not alone but remain in groups generally of 2 to 8 (BPW). Week 4 in January, birds were seen in the area of the Centro (2) and heard along the High Trail, week 1 in February, there were around 3 near the creek by the charcoal kilns and hut before the start of the High Trail (east end) and week 2 February, birds were heard on the High Trail and Dawn Trail.


Blue-winged Macaw                NT -- --           Propyrrhura maracana

Birds usual 2, sometimes fly by the Centro, the wings are blue above and green below unlike the White-eyed Parakeets (which are a similar size and also have long tails but are more numerous and often fly in larger groups) (BPW). The calls of the macaw are double calls not as raucously sharp as the White-eyed Parakeets: the parakeets give an almost continuous stream of their calls around a second apart. The records for January to April were always of a pair of birds.


Dusky-throated Hermit*                        Phaethornis squalidus

Seen mainly in forest and mainly on the High Trail, its white belly distinguishing it fromPlanalto Hermit (BPW). Care needs to be taken to identify it from Scale-throated Hermit which should also occur at Iracambi (it has already been recorded at Brigadeiro State Park), getting decent views is the hard part!


Sapphire-spangled Emerald                    Amazilia lactae

Similar to the Glittering-throated Emerald and Glittering-bellied Emerald, except for the bill which is longer, curved and all black. The sighting on 2nd week February was in High Trail area (actually on Graminha Trail) of a briefly perched bird fortunately in good light where the bill was seen well (BPW). Also seen and photographed at Centro (MF), apparently this species can show some white on the belly and a little red on the bill making identification tricky.


Glittering-throated Emerald                    Amazilia fimbriata

Virtually the same as Glittering-bellied Emerald, also with a red bill, the main difference being the obvious white centre to the belly, sometimes seen near the Centro (BPW).

On Saturday 31st March, there was the macabre spectacle of this species being eaten from the head (brain) first by a preying mantis which was around the same size (TC et al.). While hanging upside down in a bush outside the Centro building the mantis devoured the whole bird save feathers. 


Yellow (White)-browed Woodpecker     NT -- --        Piculus aurulentus

Seen the first week February in the High Trail area (BPW). Practically unmistakable except for the Golden-Green Woodpecker which has not been recorded at Iracambi and which lacks the yellow brow.

One was seen on Secret Valley Trail on 2nd March (BPW).


Lineated Woodpecker                           Dryocopus lineatus

One male seen at the Centro fourth week January (BPW). Can be mistaken for the very similar Robust Woodpecker, which in males lacks the red moustachial stripe and back patterns differ, and the barring on Lineated is different to Robust. The latter has a distinctive loud double tap and is easy to hear. Sometimes the loud machine gun rap of Lineated is heard near Centro.


Robust Woodpecker Campephilus robustus

One was heard giving loud double tap towards Casa de Barro from the Secret Valley Trail, and a second bird on the Secret Valley Trail quickly responded with the same loud double tap. This second bird was seen well and was a female.


Band-tailed Hornero*                            Furnarius figulus

Sometimes seen at Casa de Barro and at the stream before the second gate from the Centro (BPW). Birds seen first week February were carefully checked for their tail-bands which were visible.


White-collared Foliage-Gleaner*            Anabazenops fuscus

Usually seen in pairs, and often in mixed under-storey flocks, pretty unmistakable (BPW).Nothing unusual with the records for January-March.


Ferruginous Antbird*                             Drymophila ferruginea

Occasionally seen in High Trail area, particularly on Graminha Trail usually in small groups of 4 to 6 (BPW). Nothing unusual with the records for January and February.


White-fringed Antwren Formicivora grisea

First seen, low down and alone on the Secret Valley Trail on 2nd March 2007 (BPW). This species is very similar to Serra Antwren, which seems to have been misidentified as occurring inBrigadeiro State Park, quite apart from the altitude being too high for Serra, the habitat is completely wrong in the state park, as Serra Antwren occurs in arid scrub and bush often in cerrado grasslands. The other confusion species is Rusty-backed Antwren, which again is more a cerrado scrub and forest edge species. White-fringed, though also occurring in some of the same areas is the only one of the 3 that inhabits the interior of humid forest, secondary humid forest and edge habitats. I (BPW) have also observed this species at Itajuru, in 2004.


Ochre-rumped Antbird*            NT -- --          Drymophila ochropyga

Rarely seen in High Trail area, particularly on Graminha Trail, usually singly or in small groups.The records for February were all of singles on High Trail or Graminha Trail (BPW).


Swainson's Flycatcher Myiarchus swainsoni  Irrê

First seen (identified!) at Centro 19/01/07 (BPW). The confusing and frustrating Myiarchus take a little patience to learn. Swainson’s is the only one to show extensive yellow at the base of the bill. Calls of Myiarchus are fortunately diagnostic. Photographed.


Southern Bristle-Tyrant            NT -- -- Phylloscartes eximius

This species has been recorded at Brigadeiro State Park however according to Ridgley it is not found at higher elevations, and both Sepia-capped and Yellow-olive Flycatcher are often mistaken for this species.


Southern Antpipit Corythopis delalandi                                                

One was seen on the Secret Valley Trail 23rd April (BPW).


Yellow-lored Tody-Flycatcher*             Todirostrum poliocephalum

First seen 25/11/04 at the dairy (BPW), note the race here has an olive back (not dark grey) and is therefore the same colour as Yellow-loredNothing unusual.


Grey-hooded Attila*                              Attila rufus

Nothing unusual about the records, usually seen in pairs (BPW). Uncommon but frequently encountered. Superficially like Grey-hooded Flycatcher but much larger than that species, and the Attila has a very loud and distinctive call which it gives frequently. Records on IracambiRecording Sheet.


Mottle-cheeked Tyrannulet                    Phylloscartes ventralis          borboletinha-do0mato

First seen on Graminha Trail 5/01/07 and the bird was calling (BPW). Two single birds were seen at Itajuru municipal reserve on 29.04.07 (BPW).


White-winged Becard                            Pachyramphus polychopterus

Fairly common in forest, difficult to be sure of identification from Black-capped Becard without a decent view, which usually is not easy (BPW)! Becards are not infrequent in the High Trail area, but often they are not identifiable. Also seen around Secret Valley area.


Bare-throated Bellbird       VU -- VU    Procnias nudicollis

A distant calling bird was heard from the High Trail area in the last week of January (BPW).


Brassy-breasted Tanager*                     Tangara desmaresti

Nearly exclusively seen in the High Trail area often in mixed flocks (BPW). No unusual records, largest flocks less than 10 birds.


Gilt-edged Tanager*    LC -- -- IBA 075         Tangara cyanoventris

Seen at lower altitudes than Brassy-breasted Tanager often as a single species flock (BPW).Largest flocks less than 10 birds. In winter seen higher up.


Golden-chevroned Tanager*                  Thraupis ornata

Odd birds often encountered, around Centro and elsewhere (BPW). No unusual records.


Sooty Grassquit                                     Tiaris fuliginosa

Accompanied seedeaters (Double-collared and Yellow-bellied) feeding with them in grass around Centro, the bird was later photographed (BPW). A bird seen at Centro on 7th June was a female of this species (BPW), though oddly it had a distinctly bicoloured bill (as Dull-colouredGrassquit), and if the latter occurred anywhere near here I would have identified it as that. The female also had the base on the top of the bill also yellow (correct for Sooty) and was uniform grey-brown, with no difference between above and below, and no darker (black) panels on the wings (as shown by females of Double-collared and Yellow-bellied). There were no marks of any sort on the whole bird, legs were dull, mucky pink. It was perched in a bush directly next to the Centro and fed on large shiny reddish leaves of a bush there, perched about 3m high, it fed for about 10 minutes giving excellent views before flying across the open grass area and into the forest near the stream, oddly at no time did it go in grass or associate with other birds.


Uniform Finch Haplospiza unicolor  

A single male was first seen on Graminha Trail 29/01/07 feeding on flowering chusquea bamboo (BPW, SK). On subsequent visits to the same area multiple birds, both males and females were recorded, with a maximum of 8 seen during the first week February, though more were undoubtedly present, if the amount of calls were anything to go by (BPW). Seen into April.

A single male was heard then seen at Itajuru municipal reserve on 29.04.07 (BPW).


White-necked Hawk Leucopternis lacernulata

Seen very briefly overhead on the High Trail, 24th February (BPW). In flight the black outline to the tail was very noticeable as the bird passed overhead.


Brazilian Tanager* Ramphocelus bresilius

Nice to see this unmistakable species around Centro on 4th March (BPW, MF et al.). A male was seen at Casa Banana in early May (BPW).


Planalto Tyrannulet Phyllomyias fasciatus                                            

Seen often, as a pair around the trees of the marsh at Centro, in summer (BPW).


Grey-capped Tyrannulet Phyllomyias griseocapilla                 NT

A single was seen very well at Itajuru municipal reserve on 29.04.07 (BPW) and was the first time BPW had ever seen this difficult bird here. The observation was made near the junction (Irvalia road and path to Itajuru) close to the entry gate. It can be told from very similar species such as Planalto Tyrannulet, Yellow-Olive Flycatcher and Southern Beardless Tyrannulet by the following combination of features. It has a grey crown and indistinct supercilium, white breast with strong yellow on sides, indistinct wingbars, really just pale edging, note call. Note that Yellow-Olive Flycatcher is by far the commonest species mentioned here, and has a distinctive harsh call, Southern Beardless Tyrannulet (uncommon here) has a call like a braying horse andPlanalto Tyrannulet (very uncommon) has is completely yellow below, amongst other features. Care needs to be taken in identification of all these species.


Giant Antshrike Batara cinerea

A single male was heard then seen, in bamboo at Itajuru municipal reserve on 29.04.07 (BPW). The observation was made near the junction (Irvalia road and path to Itajuru) close to the entry gate.


Thrush-like Woodcreeper Dendrocincla turdina

On 5th May 2007, a bird at mid-level in a mixed flock was observed at very close quarters (less than 5 metres) by BPW. The bird also called giving its distinctive prolonged (over 30 seconds) ‘kikikiki….’ Call. The bird was superficially like Olivaceous Woodcreeper, but larger and without the contrast in the wing.  Thrush-like also shows a crested look and distinctive white throat which Olivaceous never does, both features seen very well on the observed bird. This species was almost certainly seen, at least once before this confirmed sighting in 2007 but views had proved unsatisfactory.

This species was again seen extremely closely and calling along the Secret Valley on 25th May (BPW).


Lesser Swallow-tailed Swift Panyptila cayanensis

There were 3 birds, over the main road North of Centro on 4th May (BPW).


Pallid Spinetail* Cranioleuca pallida

The calls of the Cranioleuca spinetails are all similar but this is the only one in the area. An example of a sighting was around Centro in 3rd May 2007.


White-rumped Swallow Tachycineta leucorrhoa                                  

One (adult winter) was seen on 23rd April, on wires at Centro with other swallows (BPW).


Pin-tailed Manakin*                             Ilicura militaris

One male seen on High Trail on 19th April (BPW). Two males seen, one on High Trail the other on Graminha Trail on 8th June (BPW).


Laughing Falcon Herpetotheres cachinnans

Seen in winter (first record 8th May (BPW) along the road towards Casa de Barro, sometimes near entrance to Secret Valley.


Scaly-headed Parrot                             Pionus maximiliani

Seen in winter, during May and June flying in pairs.


White-throated Woodcreeper               Xiphocolaptes albicollis

One seen on the High Trail on 8th June (BPW), checked for other species such as Buff-throated and Planalto. No call but identification certain.


Large-tailed Antshrike                          Mackenziaena leachii

Heard giving its distinct ‘fee, fee’ (x11) call that rises in pitch then falls, on 8th June (BPW), on hills behind Centro (Dawn Trail area). Also heard before this date, but not yet seen at Iracambi!


Saffron Toucanet              NT -- --       Baillonius bailloni

Along the trail towards Itajuru, in the forest at its base (the municipal park) on 10th June (BPW), 3 birds quietly moved through the forest, one was seen exceptionally well as it viewed the observer.


Highland Elaenia                                          Elaenia obscura

Some large Eleanias with dusky breasts and mucky yellow on lower below have been causing confusion. They however have only 2 wing bars not 3 as Large Eleania would and are therefore most likely to be Highland Eleanias. The calls were infrequent but fitted this species. Seen atIracambi and Itajuru in May and June.


Reddish-bellied Parakeet                                 Pyrrhura frontalis

This species was observed and identified while flying at Itajuru (the municipal park) on 10th June (BPW), from their mellow short calls and reddish bellies on some adults. Later the same day about 6 birds were seen very well perched in trees.