compiled by Martin Limbert, Bryan P. Wainwright and Steve Hiner 2015











Species monitoring


Recording in 2014












Additions and corrections



A note on Grass Carp 

by Martin Limbert


Common Cranes 2009–14 by Martin Limbert




Black-headed Gull ringing: second instalment of results by Martin Limbert


Information     sources      on

European Nightjar 

by Martin Limbert


New or additional literature sources


List       of         observers             and acknowledgements

1.                   Scope of the report. As with the Thorne Moors Vertebrates Report 2013, the present Report is an unusually long one. This is partly because it continues the process of making Thorne Moors recording as up-to-date as possible and publishing key desktop reviews. Thus the Report contains elements beyond the routine 2014 components. There are belated records from earlier years, and the contents at the rear of the report further demonstrate the catching up that is underway. A short note provides available information on the occurrence of Grass Carp. The first paper is an illustrated narrative of the colonization by Common Cranes 2009–14, intended to provide a definitive record of this important event. The second paper comprises the concluding instalment of the results of Black-headed Gull ringing, and the last contribution gives an overview of information sources on European Nightjar. On the negative side, once again bird ringing data were not available. As with the Thorne Moors Vertebrates Report 2013, a limited number of paper copies (A4 booklet style) of the Report for 2014 have been produced. In the paper copies all photographs are reproduced in monochrome.


2.                   Recording area. The Thorne Moors recording area is deliberately interpreted somewhat loosely. It comprises the whole of the peatland, contiguous unfarmed areas, the Thorne Colliery curtilage, and peripheral farmland and drains. The limit to the north is defined as the line of the old Axholme Joint Railway. Otherwise, a field width or so is a practical rule-of-thumb.    


3.                   Place-names. In broad terms, the name Thorne Moors is used to embrace both the peatland and other areas under study. The surviving peat is divided by parish limits, the parish names being Thorne Waste, Snaith & Cowick Moor, Rawcliffe Moor, Goole Moor and Crowle Moor. Thorne Waste (except now the Yorkshire Triangle) lies in South Yorkshire. The other parishes lie in East Yorkshire, except Crowle Moor and the Yorkshire Triangle, which are in North Lincolnshire. That part of Goole Moor situated north of Rawcliffe Moor is designated as 'Northern Goole Moor' for recording purposes. The name Top House Farm refers only to that part of the farm that extends from the Moors to the Thorne–Goole railway. Within the parish framework, numerous place-names are employed for bird recording. Virtually all these names (some more recent ones excepted) were included on the place-names map issued with the Thorne Moors Vertebrates Report 2005. Several copies of this map are still available. That map was superseded by a place-names map based on it, published on the website of the Thorne & Hatfield Moors Conservation Forum (again the recent names excepted).

Unfortunately, the future of the website is very uncertain. In addition, during 2015, the Thorne & Hatfield Moors Conservation Forum issued a Thorne Moors Compartment Map, as a companion to an earlier map of Hatfield Moors. It has a selection of names, but contains errors. However, it does give some of the newest names.


4.  Current sources of nomenclature and species sequence

          The British Birds list of Western Palearctic Birds, British Birds Ltd. See (accessed mid-January 2015)

          S. Harris & D.W. Yalden (editors) (2008) Mammals of the British Isles: Handbook, 4th edition. The Mammal Society, Southampton

          H.R. Arnold (1995) Atlas of amphibians and reptiles in Britain. Institute of Terrestrial Ecology research publication No. 10. HMSO, London

          C.E. Davies et al. (compilers and editors) (2004) Freshwater fishes in Britain the species and their distribution. Harley Books, Colchester 

          G.T.D. Wilmore, J. Lunn & J.S. Rodwell (2011) The South Yorkshire Plant Atlas. Yorkshire Naturalists’ Union and Yorkshire & the Humber Ecological Data Trust, no place


5.                   Descriptions and visual evidence of birds. For nationally rare taxa, evidence should be made available in accordance with the requirements of the British Birds Rarities Committee. At county level, material should be prepared in compliance with the lists issued by the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union (Birds Section Adjudication Panel) or the Lincolnshire Bird Club (Lincolnshire Bird Records Committee), as appropriate. Advice can be made available upon request.   


6.                   Rare breeding birds. In addition to Natural England, records of rare breeding birds are made available to the county organizations, and via them to the Rare Breeding Birds Panel. Records may also be accessed by bona fide specialist study groups.


7.                   Daily bird counts and WeBS counts. In the species accounts that follow, there may be references to daily counts, counts, totals etc. It is emphasized that these are not full site counts, but counts made by an individual observer or group on a particular date. It is possible to have more than one count on a single date, when the highest will be used if they cannot be coordinated or united. The recording area is very large, and site totals are difficult to establish with certainty, except for the scarcer species. However, for some wetland birds, it is possible to visit the most likely places to count them, thus attaining a relatively accurate overall total. It is acknowledged that such reported daily counts may sometimes be regarded as vague. However, they are broadly comparable over a period of years.      During 2012, more structured monitoring of wetland birds was commenced, and this has continued. Under Natural England's survey programme for the NNR, year round counts of wetland birds on Thorne Moors were undertaken as part of the national Wetland Bird Survey (WeBS).*

*WeBS is a partnership between the BTO, the RSPB and the JNCC, in association with the Wildfowl and Wetlands Trust.   


8.                   Contacts. Records of all vertebrates can be submitted for the blog/report via 'Contact us' on the website Alternatively, records can be emailed to Bryan Wainwright This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. or posted to him at: Silverthorn, St Michael's Drive, Thorne, Doncaster, DN8 5QF.





During the years 2003–10, a desktop review was undertaken of all vertebrate classes on Thorne Moors. This was published as a series of the Thorne & Hatfield Moors Conservation Forum's

Technical Reports. The ornithological component, headed The Birds of Thorne Moors, comprises two

Technical Reports. The first, introductory and bibliographical, is entitled A Guide to Literature Sources, by Martin Limbert and P.C. Roworth. This appeared in 2009 and was reprinted in 2010. The second, by B.P. Wainwright, presents An Annotated Checklist. This summarises all known bird records 1586–2009, concentrating on the years from 1990–2009. It was published in 2010, was reprinted later that year, and was reprinted again in 2015. See AVAILABILITY.


The Deer of Thorne Moors: A Working Paper by Martin Limbert was published in May 2014. This 32 page publication provides detailed accounts of Red Deer and Roe Deer, plus the recent records of Reeves' Muntjac. It covers the period from 1959 to mid-April 2014. In addition to the species accounts, there are sections on the local impact of the deer, on the outcome of a recent culling programme, and on their future management. Thus the Working Paper offers a case-study of interest at both a local and wider level, and copies are still available.



The latest reprint of the Annotated Checklist is obtainable from the publisher. Cost is £3 plus postage (first class £1.70p or second class £1.50p). Add 30p for a padded envelope. Cheques should be made payable to the Thorne & Hatfield Moors Conservation Forum and sent to: Thorne & Hatfield Moors Conservation Forum (Publications), PO Box 879, Thorne, Doncaster, DN8 5WU.


The Working Paper on deer is available as both a complimentary printed publication and a download; see





1.   Natural England. In general, species monitoring focuses on the occurrence and encouragement of rare or declining breeding species, but may involve other species. Monitoring is also a tool in assessing habitat management. To assist with this, observers are requested to provide FULL DETAILS OF EVERY RECORD (location, age, sex, etc., as appropriate) of the currently monitored species. These are marked with a dagger (†) in the systematic lists. Several of them are 'official', as they are targeted by Natural England, being the subject of contract or staff surveys/monitoring: COMMON CRANE, EUROPEAN NIGHTJAR, DEER and HERPTILES


2.   Other species. Besides the species monitored by Natural England, others currently of interest are



3.   Willow Tit. This is a species of growing concern. Will Pits is important for Willow Tits. Randomly spread pairs elsewhere on Thorne Moors are now likely to be derived from that centre. The random birds may behave as a non-sustaining 'sink' population, reliant on constant recruitment from the more permanent 'source' at Will Pits. Thus the latter location rather than the whole of  the Moors may be crucial for the future of Willow Tits. Totals of territorial males for the entire site may not indicate a healthy population unless the majority are located at the Will Pits core. Management of Will Pits needs to take into account the requirements of Willow Tits, and formal monitoring of this species across the entire Moors is clearly justified. Birds of Conservation Concern 4 (Eaton et al. 2015) lists Willow Tit as a UK Red list species in severe decline, with heightened attention because it forms a globally threatened endemic race, P.m. kleinschmidti


M. Eaton et al. (2015) Birds of Conservation Concern 4: the population status of birds in the UK, Channel Islands and Isle of Man. British Birds 108: 708–746.


4. Adder. The known range of skin colour in Adder comprises a wide spectrum for each sex. On Thorne Moors, females have included brick-red and chocolate-brown examples. Other Adders on the Moors have been described as "dark" or "very dark". On rare occasions, there have been specimens regarded as unusual in a Thorne context, although there are few precise data. For example, in April 1992, SH came upon an "almost black" Adder on 12th and a male with a greenish tint on 23rd. In this Report, a belated record is given of a black Adder photographed in 2008 (Figure 1). As noted in the Report for 2013, another black Adder was photographed in April of that year. Black Adders can be relatively frequent at some locations in Britain, but Thorne Moors has never been seen as one of them. Although black Adders have been regarded as exceptional on Thorne Moors, perhaps at least some specimens described as "dark" or "very dark" might have otherwise been characterized as black. It may be, therefore, that black Adders are a little more frequent than hitherto perceived. In order to understand the true occurrence of black Adders on Thorne Moors, records are requested of any dark/black examples, preferably with a photograph. It should be noted that Adders newly emerged from hibernation can be darker than usual, thus a date for any record is important.





There were 8643 records from the blog, and others from more traditional sources. A total of 156 species of bird was reliably recorded (excluding Snow Bunting q.v.). Individuals are generally aged/sexed as per the wording supplied, although it is recognized that this will lead to some overlap of records. 

 The first of four newcomers was Great White Egret, with four records, including two birds on 2nd May. Less predictably, a Black Stork was present on 26th May. A Rose-coloured Starling lingered in the first week of June, and a Cetti's Warbler was encountered on 27th October/3rd November. Scarce non-passerines included Bewick's Swan, White-fronted Goose (seventh record),

Garganey, Common Quail, Little Egret, Eurasian Spoonbill (fifth record), Honey-buzzard, Red Kite (including two on 31st December), Montagu's Harrier (sixth–seventh records), Rough-legged Buzzard, Wood Sandpiper, Caspian Gull and Short-eared Owl. Common Cranes were frequently present, mostly involving two breeding pairs, but there were others at times, with a likely nine birds in total on 7th October. Notable passerines included Great Grey Shrike, Bearded Tit, Ring Ouzel, Pied Flycatcher (fourth modern record), Black Redstart (fifth record), Rock Pipit (third–sixth records), Common Redpoll and Twite, with one of the latter in song. Nesting birds included Greylag Goose,

Gadwall, Eurasian Teal, Tufted Duck, Black-necked Grebe, Common Crane, Little Ringed Plover, Long-eared Owl, Common Kestrel, Hobby, Coal Tit and European Stonechat. Several locally breeding species, like Marsh Harrier, Stock Dove, Woodlark, Eurasian Treecreeper and Tree Pipit, lacked absolute proof in 2014. The European Nightjar survey revealed a record 57 territories, and also 35 'reeling' Grasshopper Warblers.

                          In general, some species were relatively frequent, or had large – even record – totals.

Examples of non-passerines are Pink-footed Goose in the later months (maximum c.3548 on 9th November), Greylag Goose (September figures reached c.720), Canada Goose (August–September totals peaked at c.200), Eurasian Wigeon (an unprecedented 231 on 16th January), Gadwall (maximum 55 on 25th February), Eurasian Teal (maximum 761 on 22nd September), Mallard (maximum c.750 on 9th August), Shoveler (maximum c.80 on 3rd August), Common Pochard (many dates March–July), Tufted Duck (maximum 22 on 5th May), Goosander (maximum 39 on 2nd February), Great Cormorant (including a group of 14 south on 6th August), Marsh Harrier (maximum nine on 28th September), Common Buzzard (double-figure totals peaked at 13), Yellow-legged Gull (including 20 on 22nd September), Merlin (24 dates), Hobby (15+ in mid-May) and Peregrine Falcon (including four on 8th October). From the passerines may be exampled Rook (an unprecedented c.250 overhead on 28th September), Blackbird (December totals peaked at 83+), European Stonechat (numerous counts included 20 on 30th September), Tree Sparrow (including 200+ on 25th September), Linnet (maximum c.500 on 28th September) and Goldfinch (c.530 on 20th October, which far outstripped anything else). 

 Conversely, some species were relatively infrequent. It was a thin year for breeding and passage waders, although 57 Common Snipe were counted on 17th October. Green Woodpecker was restricted to 19 dates, and there were no records at all of Red-legged Partridge and Corn Bunting. Of other now scarce species that continue to give concern, one that did relatively well in 2014 was Willow Tit, including several reports of breeding. There were unseasonable – or at least unusual – dates reported during the year. A Pink-footed Goose on 8th–9th/11th September preceded the main arrival, being the earliest ever, so might have been a feral bird. There were records of mid-June Eurasian Wigeon, and a Garganey on the latest ever dates of 8th–9th October. A male Hen Harrier was present on 8th June, a Short-eared Owl on 8th July, and occasional Peregrine Falcons in both months. A Greenshank was noted on 27th December. In March, a Blackcap occurred on 7th, with the main arrival at the end of the month, suggesting the former to be a wintering bird. Two Siskins on 14th May were notable, and a Grey Wagtail on 30th June was only the second ever in that month.



During 2014 there were records of 18 species of mammal. These included all three shrews, and four rodents including Harvest Mouse. Amongst the lagomorph records was evidence of myxomatosis in Rabbit. Interestingly, Stoat was recorded on 23 dates but Weasel on only five. Two reports of Mink were also received. There were numerous records of Red and European Roe Deer, and again a thermal imaging (infra-red) survey was undertaken by the Deer Initiative. On three dates, single Reeves' Muntjac were seen, one of them being photographed (Figure 2). 

 Three species of reptile were documented, including a Grass Snake carried by a Common Buzzard, one of ten records of that reptile. The latest ever dates of both Grass Snake and Adder were obtained, with the first November records of the latter achieved. Now, only December–January lack Adder records. Of the remaining vertebrates, there was a good number of records of Common Frog, and also reports of Smooth Newt, Common Bream, Roach and Pike.




Mute Swan Cygnus olor. Recorded on three dates in the early months, commencing with two at Will Pits Scrape on 31st March. There was then one east on 19th April and two west on 4th May. Recorded on seven dates from 30th October (when one immature west) to 22nd November (five east), otherwise singly, grounded or overhead, with one exception. On 3rd November, two juveniles flew west and a single bird was at the Paraffin Cuttings. The last report was of two east on 24th December. In addition to the foregoing, there were two records nearby, from the stretch of Durham's Warping Drain west of Moorends Road: two adults on 8th February and a single adult on 15th April. 


Bewick's Swan Cygnus columbianus. Three (including one juvenile) flew SSW over Goole Moor on 25th November (TCL).


Whooper Swan Cygnus cygnus. Encountered on 2nd February (five at Will Pits Scrape, later at flooded workings) and on five dates in March. These were 5th (38 at flooded workings), 9th (47 over Crowle Moor from the south), 10th (two at flooded workings), 21st (one at Will Pits Scrape) and 29th (eight at Will Pits Scrape). On 14th October, 11 at flooded workings included four juveniles. Whooper Swans were then frequently recorded until the end of the year. Counts in October reached eight (heading south-east) on 20th, 13 (four juveniles) on 29th and 26+ (four juveniles) on 30th. November counts of up to seven were exceeded on 1st (14 south), 3rd (25 flew off south-east from Goole Moor, including two juveniles), 5th (28+, including seven juveniles, at flooded workings) and 25th. On this latter date, 12 – including one juvenile – flew south-east, and two juveniles were east of Bank Top. During the month, these two juveniles were often seen feeding in that same area. Finally, December sightings comprised 10 at flooded workings on 2nd, three east of Bank Top on 3rd–4th, and five regularly beyond Bank Top during 10th–27th. 


Pink-footed Goose Anser brachyrhynchus. Until September, the only records were in January. Initially, c.1000 on 7th included c.150 roosting on the Moors. Otherwise recorded on 11th (c.200 south) and 19th (c.120 overhead). The September records commenced with one east over Goole Fields on 8th. Next day, one was with Greylags on Goole Fields, and what was presumably the same bird accompanied Greylags at Shearburn & Pitts Drain on 11th. Later in the month, transient birds were reported on 21st (79 east), 23rd (11 ESE) and 28th (55 and 40 overhead). Throughout October– November, grounded and flying geese were regular, with three-figure totals on 41 dates. The October maxima (above c.800) were c.1040 in three skeins on 24th, 2000+ in skeins heading east next day, c.2090 flying to roost in fields west of the Moors on 27th, and 2000+ over Goole Fields on 30th. Similarly, November counts peaked at 2600+ over Goole Fields on 1st, c.2000 on 2nd, c.3238 on 3rd (including c.3080 leaving two roosts on Goole Moor), 9th (one skein of c.3500, and a day total of c.3548), 13th (1000+ over Goole Fields and Goole Moor), 14th (c.1120 overhead), 16th (c.900), 17th (1200+ left a roost on Goole Moor, with c.840 returning in late afternoon) and 30th (1500+, possibly associated with a roost on Goole Moor). Also notable were 85 at Will Pits Scrape on 22nd November, then totals of up to 12 there for a few days. Counts during 2nd–19th December exceeded 135 twice: c.1200 leaving Goole Moor at dawn on 18th and c.500 over Goole Fields next day.


White-fronted Goose Anser albifrons. One of the nominate race was with Pink-feet on Goole Fields on 20th October (TCL). The seventh record.


Greylag Goose Anser anser. Recorded in each month, most frequently during March–May, September–October/December, with a clear peak in April. The counts in January reached 38 on 2nd, but with 174 on 19th. Similarly, in February there was nothing over 12 except 122 on 16th. Eighteen dates in March had up to 45, exceptionally more, peaking at 62 on 21st. Recorded on most dates in April, with breeding proved at Will Pits Scrape and Green Belt Scrape. A pair had 10 goslings (no location) on 18th, and later in the month there were goslings at Will Pits Scrape (five) and Green Belt Scrape (one). Otherwise, daily counts in April varied from four–37, plus 40–48 occasionally, peaking at 54 on 6th, 65 on 19th and 92 on 20th. May figures occasionally reached 20, although with 31 on 6th and 52 (including 12 goslings) on 18th. June–July counts were unexceptional, but with 20 on 3rd June, 21 (including three goslings) on 15th June and 34 on 20th July. August totals reached c.50, but with 117 on 5th, 225 on 10th and c.160 on 24th. Counts in September began with c.70 on 1st, then attained 368+ on 7th, c.720 on 8th, c.550 on 9th, 283 on 11th, 188 on 12th and c.250 on 21st. The largest of these totals were from Goole Fields and Goole Moor. During October–December, counts reached three figures in early October, peaking at c.520 roosting on the Moors on 7th and c.200 reported next day. There were also 121 on 30th November. No December count exceeded c.40 except 72 on 19th.


Canada Goose Branta canadensis. In the early part of the year, records were obtained on 10th January (17), 19th January (one) and 16th February (35). There was an increase in records from midMarch–late May. The first were two at Will Pits Scrape on three dates in March from 18th. Throughout April, counts of up to five were exceeded only by seven on 10th. Similarly, May counts of up to three were bettered only by seven on 18th. There were no records during the period 25th May–2nd August, except an isolated 26 that landed temporarily in the Shoulder o' Mutton area on 1st June. During August, occasional counts of up to three contrasted sharply with several large totals: on

5th (67), 9th (52), 13th–14th (c.200), 17th (c.80) and 25th (155). The only named location was Goole Moor, except 13th–14th when the geese roosted in the "north-west fields". There were also periodic large counts in the first half of September: on 1st (c.150), 7th (100+), 14th (62) and 17th (44). Stated locations were Goole Moor and Goole Fields. Subsequently reported during September–November on 12 dates, maxima five on 28th September and  four on 24th October. Will Pits Scrape was a favoured location, where there were also two on 2nd/4th December. 


Common Shelduck Tadorna tadorna. Mostly associated with April–May, with other reports on only five dates: 20th–22nd March and 1st/3rd June. There were ten dates in April and 25 in May. Overall, most records were of one–four birds. However, there were some higher figures in May, on 5th (eight), 8th (six), 9th (eight), 10th (seven), 11th (five) and 25th (15 east). Will Pits Scrape and Goole Moor were often cited, but also named were Crowle Moor, Green Belt Scrape and flooded workings.


Eurasian Wigeon Anas penelope. Virtually unreported until September. In January there were two males on 14th and a record count of 231 at Will Pits Scrape on 16th. In mid-June, Will Pits Scrape held a pair on 15th and two females on 20th. In September, there were five on 7th and four–five on four other dates, plus 19 on 12th. Seen periodically in October–November, rarely more than six, with maxima – in October – of 12 on 7th and 16 on 14th. There were also two pairs on 6th December.


Gadwall Anas strepera. Reported throughout the year, but few in July–August. During January– February Will Pits Scrape was the favoured location, maxima 21 on 6th January and 22 on 9th February. However, there was an exceptional 55 – mainly at Will Pits Scrape – on 25th February. Counts in March reached 25 on 21st and 29 on 29th, with April peaks of 20 on 2nd and 34 on 20th. May–June figures reached four, sometimes more, maxima 11 on 18th May and 18 on 15th June. In June, there was a pair on Snaith & Cowick Moor on 13th and a female with eight young at Will Pits Scrape on 20th. One was on a nest at flooded workings on the west side of the Moors on 15th June. Two were reported on 20th/23rd July and 10 on 24th August, with more numerous records from September to the year end. Most of these counts did not exceed six, but were sometimes up to 15. Larger totals were 38 on 7th/13th October, 18 on 5th/28th November, 22 on 30th November, and December peaks on 2nd (17), 19th (22+) and 24th (42). 


Eurasian Teal Anas crecca. Monthly maxima were 309, 107, c.110, 151, 13, 43 (including 15 young), 30, c.220, 761, c.540, c.600, 178. September data included a count of 513 on 7th as well as the exceptional 761 on 22nd (BPW). October peaks were c.540 on 3rd and 500+ on 7th, with an isolated November highlight being the c.600 on 30th. Breeding was proved at flooded workings, in the Paraffin Cuttings area and at Snaith & Cowick Fen. One bird was subjected to an unsuccessful attack by an immature Marsh Harrier on 18th September. 


Mallard Anas platyrhynchos. Monthly maxima were 345, 184, 61, 83, c.70, 33 (including nine young), 17, c.750, 355, c.180, c.650, 402. The year's peak of c.750 was obtained on 9th August, with no other counts in that month exceeding 321 on 24th. In November, totals peaked at 514 on 5th, c.480 on 22nd and c.650 on 30th. The December peak was on 7th. Breeding proved, including a duckling predated by a Fox on 8th June.  


Pintail Anas acuta. Single pairs were seen on 14th January, 5th March and 5th April. Later in April there were three on 15th, with records resuming in September. These commenced with four west on 8th, followed by four males and two females north on 18th. Three flew off north-east on 20th, and there were five on 28th. A small flurry in early October provided two females on 7th, then two males and a female on 9th. Lastly, a male roosted at Will Pits Scrape on 27th December.    


Garganey Anas querquedula. Reports on six dates opened with a male on Goole Moor on 3rd May (TCL). On 6th, single males were reported from Crowle North Marsh (MW, SH, LE, PL et al.) and on a pool on Goole Moor (BPW, WHP). A male was again present at Crowle North Marsh on 9th (BPW, WHP). All the foregoing probably involved the same male. On 26th June, a pair was in the 'Green Belt floods' area (MW). Finally, a late immature was on Goole Moor on 8th–9th October (TCL). 


Shoveler Anas clypeata. Recorded throughout the year, least so in January/July–August. Monthly maxima were two, 12, 42, 45, 10, 18, 18, c.80, 35, 42, 30, 22. Counts in excess of c.40 were obtained on 22nd March (42), 20th April (45), 3rd August (c.80), 5th October (42) and 9th October (41). The August maximum – the highest of the year – was one of only three counts in that month, the others being merely c.30 and four. The only evidence of breeding was an adult and juvenile at Snaith & Cowick Fen on 13th June (SH). 


Common Pochard Aythya ferina. An exceptional year for this species, with half of all reports in

April. The first was a male at Crowle North Marsh on 7th March. Presumably the same bird was at Will Pits Scrape next day. For the rest of the month virtually all records were from this latter location.

The dates here were 9th (one "female type"), 16th (four), 19th (two males), 21st (two males), 22nd (one male), 23rd (two males and one female), 27th (two males and two females), 29th (two males) and 31st (three males and three females). Additionally, two males and one female at 'Woodside floods' on 29th may have overlapped with the Will Pits Scrape males. In April, reports from Will Pits Scrape were virtually continuous during 1st–21st. In that period, after seven on 1st, there were nine on 2nd, but fewer thereafter, maximum three males and two females on 5th. Up to two males were visible subsequently, with a pair on 14th/18th/21st. Other sightings during the first three weeks of April involved flooded workings (two pairs on 6th and single males on 17th/20th), and Crowle North Marsh (singles on 7th/19th and two on 15th). In addition, a pair was at Green Belt Scrape on 21st. Occasional records during late April–early May included four males and a female at Will Pits Scrape on 30th. From 17th–23rd May, counts at Will Pits Scrape mostly comprised up to four males and one female. From mid-June–early July there were records from Will Pits Scrape again, involving up to two males and one female in June, with males in early July on 2nd (two) and 4th (one). Subsequent birds from there were logged in July (a pair on 27th) and November (two on 18th and a female on 28th). Hopes of breeding were unfulfilled. This would have been a first, although nesting might have occurred in 1960.


Tufted Duck Aythya fuligula. Virtually entirely reported from Will Pits Scrape. Two were reported on four January dates, involving at least two males and one female. The more numerous February records were of up to five, then 11 on 18th and 14 on 25th, the latter comprising at least six pairs.

Counts in March reached 13, occasionally 19, and 21 on 9th. The many totals in April–May fluctuated widely from one to 14, with higher totals on 12th April (17), 18th April (20) and 5th May (22). June counts were fewer and lower, the maxima being four on 1st–2nd and five on 24th. In addition, females had eight young on 21st June and four young on 20th July, both at Will Pits Scrape. There were then no other reports until six on 27th July, followed in August by seven on 10th and two on 15th. Intermittently reported from mid-September onwards, maxima being six on 28th September and 10 on 1st November.  


Common Goldeneye Bucephala clangula. From 2nd January–6th April, a female was resident at Will Pits Scrape (once at 'Thousand Acre floods'). In November, sightings at Will Pits Scrape commenced with three on 10th, with up to three thereafter, described as single male, female and immature birds. There was also an unspecified single there on 2nd December.


Goosander Mergus merganser. Regularly recorded during January–April, usually at Will Pits Scrape, occasionally at flooded workings or in flight. January counts sometimes reached 19, with 23 on 19th, including the month's maximum of nine+ males. Up to 19 in February were eclipsed by 39 (14 males) on 2nd and 29 (12 males) on 9th. March counts of up to 13 were bettered by 20 (seven males) on 16th. Records from the first half of April were lower in number, often of females. The maximum was seven (one male) on 6th, although next day there were three males, and with single males on 10th–12th and 15th–16th. The last females (three) were on 15th. The final record was of two males on 3rd May. Reported again in late November–early December. After seven (three males) on 28th, there were 10 (five males) on 30th, and up to seven (four males) in the first week of December. On 19th December there were 10 (seven males), but fewer thereafter except 15 (11 males) on 26th. In the later months, the only named locality was Will Pits Scrape.


Common Quail Coturnix coturnix. Singles called from a wheat field opposite Bank Top on 24th– 25th May and from Chadwick Field on 7th June. One was recorded on 14th June during the European Nightjar census ("in the north west of the site").


Grey Partridge Perdix perdix. Recorded on 18 dates, beginning with Thorne Colliery in January (three on 10th and one on 24th). On 16th February one was along Fisons' Road North, with two on Crowle Moor on 26th. Others were seen in April on 10th (two on Crowle Moor), 14th (two near the disused Swinefleet Works) and 26th (two on the field track to Creyke's). At this latter location, there were further records of two on 6th/25th May and 5th June, then 12 in fields there on 7th/28th September, described as "mainly immatures" on the former date. There were two in the Thorne

Colliery area on 2nd May and 5th June, a pair on Crowle Moor on 17th May, and one near Creyke's Sidings on 31st May. Encountered in November on 6th, when seven were on Goole Fields, and 30th, involving seven on Snaith & Cowick Moor and four (different ?) in nearby fields.   


Common Pheasant Phasianus colchicus. During the period January–September counts reached 13, plus 29 (Chadwick Field) on 12th January and 16 on 20th April. Relatively large totals occurred in October, with counts of 20–29 bettered by 31 on 8th/23rd. November–December totals reached 15, and exceeded this (25) on 16th November. Chicks were seen on Crowle Moor on 19th May.


Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo. The first were reported on 9th February (five west) and 30th March (one north-west). April records were obtained on 6th (one south), 12th (two came from the north and landed at 'Thousand Acre floods'), 14th (two at 'Thousand Acre floods'), 17th (one overhead), 18th (two south), 19th (one at 'Thousand Acre floods' departed westwards), 20th (one north), 21st/24th–25th (singles at 'Thousand Acre floods'), 26th (one north) and 27th (two north to Goole Fields Reservoir, one returning later). On 4th May, an immature was at 'Thousand Acre floods', with an immature next day flying between Goole Fields Reservoir and Goole Moor. On 8th, a single bird flew overhead. One was seen flying over Goole Fields, heading to Goole Fields Reservoir, on 9th. On 16th, one was at 'Woodside floods', with another lone bird over Bank Top on 25th. June records of singles were obtained on 11th (overhead), 14th (over Goole Moor), 15th (at Green Belt Scrape) and 20th (at Will Pits Scrape). Noted in August on 6th (a group of 14 south), 9th (three southwest) and 10th (one east). Next reported in October, on 5th (one north), 7th (two singles overhead), 24th (one at Will Pits Scrape) and 29th (one). November records commenced with three (two + one) heading south on 9th, then transient singles on 11th (west), 18th (west) and 28th (north). Other singles flew north on 1st/24th December.     


Little Egret Egretta garzetta. An isolated record was of four, on 11th May, flying east to west over Green Belt (BPW, GF, AH). In August, what may have been only one bird was seen in the Creyke's area on 10th–11th/22nd (BPW, MW). 


Great White Egret Ardea alba. On 2nd May, two were at 'Thousand Acre floods' (BPW, RW, TK, BS). One was reported from Crowle Moor on 12th July (MLy). There were two records towards the end of the year. On 17th November, one flew from Goole Moor towards Swinefleet Warping Drain on Goole Fields (TCL), and on 30th December one flew SSW over Bank Top and Will Pits, occurring later heading south-west over Will Pits Scrape (BPW, RJS). The first records.


Grey Heron Ardea cinerea. Mostly recorded April–June and September–October, when singles were reported, with two on 1st/3rd April and 7th October, and three on 29th September. Grounded birds were reported from the Creyke's area, Northern Goole Moor, Swinefleet Warping Drain, Crowle Moor, Green Belt, Thorne Colliery, Bell's Pond and Chadwick Field. In other months, there were records in January (2nd), February (6th), August (20th/24th), November (5th) and December (14th). Again singles, except the August totals of three on 20th and five on 24th. Locations named were Creyke's, Crowle Moor and Thorne Colliery.


Black Stork Ciconia nigra. "On the morning of the 26th of May a [first-summer] Black Stork was reported as flying over Wintersett Reservoirs West Yorkshire, some 18 miles to the west of Southfield [Reservoirs]; later that morning it was seen from the Southfield recording area to the north of the reservoirs, it was high up, soaring and gliding its way eastwards" (Southfield Reservoirs & Went Ings Bird Report 2014: 3–4). It then landed on Goole Moor (BPW, RJS, TCL, RW et al.), and later flew east over Crowle (GPC). On the Moors the stork was mobbed by a Common Buzzard and a female Marsh Harrier. Accepted by British Birds Rarities Committee. The first record.


Eurasian Spoonbill Platalea leucorodia. An adult circled north-eastwards at Creyke's Sidings in the early morning of 9th May (WHP). The fifth record.


Little Grebe Tachybaptus ruficollis. Recorded twice in March, on 20th/27th, and then regularly during April–June. Subsequently reported on 20th July, 10th/24th August, on nine dates 8th September–16th October, and on 1st November. Daily totals were one–two, occasionally three

(June/September), and five on 30th June. Regular locations were Crowle North Marsh, Will Pits Scrape and Bell's Pond, with the latter having the only November record. Occasional records also came from pools on Goole Moor, the Western Boundary Drain (17th June), Green Belt Scrape (23rd September) and nearby flooded workings (two on 5th October).  


Great Crested Grebe Podiceps cristatus. The sole record was of one at Will Pits Scrape on 4th May.


Black-necked Grebe Podiceps nigricollis. A much better year than 2013. At Will Pits Scrape, there were March records on 7th/10th (two) and 31st (one). At this location there were many reports during April–May, involving one–three birds. These involved a pair, and a single with "duller plumaged cheeks". In addition, 'Woodside floods' attracted three on 21st April and two on 16th–17th May. Pools on Goole Moor had May records on 14th (one) and 20th (two). There were few subsequent records, and all concerned Will Pits Scrape. After two on 8th June, there was nothing until 16th July when an adult was seen with two young "less than half-grown" (RAF, BTF). Singles were later seen on 20th/27th July. It was considered that the records of 14th May (three at Will Pits Scrape and one on Goole Moor) constituted four birds in total, the maximum count of the year.


Honey-buzzard Pernis apivorus. A pale bird flew south on 28th September (RJS).


Red Kite Milvus milvus. Singles flew over Priory Farm on 18th March (SH, CE) and over Goole Moor/Goole Fields on 4th May (TCL). Finally, two headed south on 31st December from Top House Farm to the Paraffin area (JD, JH). All previous records involve singles.


†Marsh Harrier Circus aeruginosus. The most frequently reported vertebrate, and all individuals are cited here as described. Present throughout the year, but with only circumstantial evidence of breeding actually on the Moors. During January, birds described as adult male/male were logged on six dates, plus immature males on 19th/24th. Adult females/females were seen on eight dates, and up to two 'creamcrowns' were also noted during the month. Immatures were present on five dates, including a first-winter on 19th and two+ immatures on 23rd. The highest daily totals were four (on 23rd, when there was an adult male, a female and the two+ immatures) and eight (on 29th, mostly from a roost and dispersing over Goole Fields). February records involved adult males/males on seven dates, plus an immature male on 2nd/9th. Adult females/females appeared on seven dates, with 'creamcrowns' on four dates, including two on 15th and three on 20th. There was an immature on 2nd and a first-winter on 16th/18th. The monthly maximum was again four, on three dates. During March, there were frequent records of adult males/males, singly except four males on 29th and two males on 30th–31st. Adult females/females were also regular, on 13 dates, with a second-year female on 9th. An immature was reported on 16th. 'Creamcrowns' were readily apparent, often two–three in number, but six on 14th and four on 31st. What was described as a pair was seen on 7th/10th. The daily maximum was seven on 14th/29th. 

 Reports in April were daily except 31st, with two, sometimes three, males present. Similarly, there were up to three females, except four on 17th. Birds described as 'creamcrowns' were restricted to 15th (two) and 19th–20th (three). Single immatures occurred on 14th/26th–28th. Birds characterized as pairs were seen on 12th/18th/30th. May observations covered all dates but 21st/27th– 28th, and featured up to two pairs, with males and females also reported that might have been additional. There were immatures on 1st/3rd, and occasional reports of single 'creamcrowns'. A pair was displaying on 20th. Records from June involved two males and two females, including display by one pair on 1st. There were three males on 2nd, one of which was described as "very light coloured" and "stunning". However, on 10th there were five males on Goole Moor/Goole Fields (TCL). Throughout the month there were totals of up to four, plus the five males and one female on 10th. There were fewer records in July, mostly involving single males and females, but two females on 7th. Also a 'creamcrown' on 6th. On 8th, a male passed food to a female. Breeding definitely occurred off-site.

 There were more records in August, including juveniles. They comprised single males and females, occasionally two females, and rarely a 'creamcrown'. There were five juveniles on 3rd/10th, three from 11th and two from 24th. The daily maximum was eight (one male, two females and five juveniles) on 3rd. September records comprised two males in the early part of the month and one periodically thereafter, and up to three females. Also four 'creamcrowns' on 26th. Two juveniles were reported intermittently. There were also sightings of three juveniles on 17th; five (three + two) immatures on 18th; seven juveniles and females on 21st; six juveniles and females on 22nd; and nine immatures on 28th, this latter being the maximum daily count in September.   

 Records remained frequent throughout the last three months of the year. In October, the core birds were single males and females and four variously described as juveniles or immatures. A second female appeared during 22nd–24th. There were also 'creamcrowns' on 7th (five) and 24th (two), six immatures on 10th, and an immature male on 25th/31st. On this latter date, an adult female, the immature male and three juveniles roosted at flooded workings. November reports, throughout the month, included one adult male/male, two males on 13th, a juvenile male on 1st/3rd, and up to two+ females. There were 'creamcrowns' on 4th (one) and 30th (three). Also two juveniles/immatures, with four immatures on 18th. On this latter date, there were four additional birds, two of them females, giving the highest November total of eight birds. December hosted a female and three immatures, plus adult males/males on 8th/15th–20th. The daily maximum was four.

 Single females carried a snake on 18th April and a Moorhen on 22nd July. An immature attacked and missed a Eurasian Teal on 18th September. Single females mobbed a male Hen Harrier on 21st March and the Black Stork on 26th May. A Peregrine Falcon harassed two Marsh Harriers on 14th May. 

A bird with a green tag on its right wing was seen on 7th October ('creamcrown'), and in November on 1st (juvenile male) and 10th (no details). A 'creamcrown' with a green wing-tag was observed at Southfield Reservoirs on 8th September and was also seen on Hatfield Moors. It had been tagged in Norfolk (Southfield Reservoirs & Went Ings Bird Report 2014: 7). 


Hen Harrier Circus cyaneus. Reported fairly regularly from January–6th April. In January, this involved one, possibly two, adult males, also a first-winter male on 19th and a 'ringtail'/female occasionally. The latter and an adult male were seen to roost. There were periodical reports of males in February. Two entering a roost on 2nd were described as adult males, although one had "slight brown on upper carpals" (BPW, RJS). There was also a 'ringtail' on 22nd. Sightings in March comprised single 'ringtail'/female birds up to 12th, and more frequent records of single males (an adult male on 8th), plus two together briefly on 14th. During 1st–6th April, one+ male was still about. On 8th June, a male was twice seen well at 'Middle Moor' (RB). Subsequently, a 'ringtail' was observed during 9th–29th September, on the latter date being described as a juvenile (TCL). The species was unreported in October, with the next records in November: a male on 13th/26th and two adult males over 'Middle Moor' on 30th. There were four December dates, with a male (to roost) on 1st, a secondyear male (also to roost) on 20th, a female on 29th, and an unsexed bird seen briefly next day. A male was mobbed by a female Marsh Harrier on 21st March.


Montagu's Harrier Circus pygargus. At Goole Fields, a second-year female flew west on 26th April (BPW), with a female there on 31st July (CN). The sixth–seventh modern records.


Eurasian Sparrowhawk Accipiter nisus. All specified singles in January were females, except a male on 27th; there were three birds on 7th. Recorded in February on 8th (one), 9th (two males), 26th (one) and 27th (one female). In March, males were logged again on 7th/18th/22nd and females later in the month. Sexed birds in April–May were females except males on 14th/19th/21st April and 16th May, and one of each on 24th May. With records on only ten dates during June–August, odd birds were described as females, and all were singles except two on 5th June. Subsequently one–two were more frequent, with more being identified as female than male. A pair was together on 7th September.  Behavioural observations included a female chasing a Bullfinch on 6th January, one flushing a

Rock Pipit on Goole Moor on 20th October, a female "having a go" at European Starlings on 18th November, and a female feeding on a killed Magpie on 28th November. One flew high overhead with a Hobby on 15th August, and a female soared with six Common Buzzards on 23rd September.      


Common Buzzard Buteo buteo. In much the same way as Marsh Harrier before it, Common Buzzard has experienced a transformation in status. With records in 2013 covering 136 dates, those for 2014 numbered 181 dates. There were singles or two on four January dates, with singles more numerously in February, when also five on 25th. The records in March–April were sometimes of singles, at other times two or three. There were four on 29th–30th March and 6th/26th April; and also in April, five on 15th/19th/21st and six on 18th. Daily counts of up to three in May were exceeded by four on 14th, five on 3rd and six on 13th. During June–August, one–two were bettered by three on 8th July, four on 1st/12th June, five on 30th August and six on 22nd August. Ten on 24th August was only the second record in double figures at that time (10 also on 6th October 2013). However, numbers were especially notable in September–early October. Daily totals reached five on 21st September, six on 8th/28th September, seven on 23rd September (six of them "kettling over Pony Bridge Marsh") and 11 on 5th October (five of them "soaring high"). Finally, there were 13 on two dates in that period: 7th September ("in air at once mainly over Will Pits") and 5th October (including five together high overhead moving south). For the rest of October–November there were frequent records of one–two, plus three on three dates and four on 13th/15th/23rd/25th October and 30th November. With reports on 13 December dates, most concerned singles, but there were two on 27th and three on 3rd/19th.  One, clutching a Grass Snake, flew over flooded workings north of Fisons' Road on 28th April (SH, LE), and another had a Brown Rat over Long Meadow on 19th December. One mobbed the Black Stork on 26th May.


Rough-legged Buzzard Buteo lagopus. On 25th October, one was over Shoulder o' Mutton (RJS) and one was on Goole Fields, the latter being flushed by a Common Buzzard and flying off towards Goole (MW, CK, JK). One was reported separately on 27th by a train passenger on the Doncaster– Hull line, seen hovering near Hookmoor Farm. Presumably all involved the same bird.  


Water Rail Rallus aquaticus. Records during January–March involved totals of one–four, but six on

8th January. Locations specified were Crowle Moor, Goole Moor Tram, Bank Top, 'Middle Moor'/Will Pits Scrape area and flooded workings. During April–June, there were one–two but three on 21st April and six on 26th May. Crowle Moor, Goole Moor, 'Woodside floods', Mill Drain/Mill Drain Marsh, Mervyn's Tram, Pony Bridge Marsh and Long Meadow were all named. During the European Nightjar census, six were reported. There was only one July record (Crowle Moor on 23rd), with the first subsequent date being 6th August. From then until the end of the year there were numerous records, with named locations being Crowle Moor, Goole Moor Tram, Swinefleet Warping Drain/Bank Top, Fisons' Road, Mill Drain Marsh, 'Middle Moor' area, Green Belt area and the adjacent flooded workings. Counts reached three occasionally, with four on four dates during 10th November–1st December.


Moorhen Gallinula chloropus. Reported throughout the year, but infrequently June–August. Monthly maxima were seven, two, six, 17, 10, 12, two, three, six, six, six, five. Bred on Crowle Moor. One was captured by a female Marsh Harrier on 22nd July. 


Common Coot Fulica atra. Present 19th March–25th August, with specified locations being Will Pits Scrape, Green Belt Scrape and Crowle North Marsh. All records involved one–two, except four on 22nd/24th June. 


†Common Crane Grus grus. The first sightings were of three on 22nd–23rd February. March records began on 11th, with two pairs becoming established and both confirmed to breed. There were totals of three pairs on 5th May and 1st June. One pair had two young by the end of April, with both still alive on 11th June, and one present to the end of the month but missing on 2nd July. The other pair also had two young, apparent at the beginning of May and persisting to 17th, with the survivor living until 20th June. Foxes were regarded as the likely cause of all failures. An immature bird (last year's young ?) was seen late May–June (with an immature also on 7th October). Sightings of adults continued into early July, although after 8th the only dates until October were 23rd July, 24th August and 9th September. A final flurry of activity in the first half of October gave a maximum of six adults, but with a likely nine birds on 7th, including the aforementioned immature. There was then an absence from 18th–31st October. However, two birds on 1st November ensured that there had been at least one record in each month during the period February–November. 


Oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus. In April, one was heard at Green Belt on 8th and one flew over Will Pits Scrape on 29th. Reports on four May dates involved two on Goole Moor on 4th/29th, one west over Green Belt Scrape on 7th, and one at flooded workings on 11th. Finally, one flew south over Goole Fields at 23.00 hrs on 21st July.


European Golden Plover Pluvialis apricaria. During the earlier months, encountered on 29th

January (46), 19th March (c.150 on Goole Fields), 22nd March (100+ over Crowle Moor), 23rd

March (64 circling), 30th March (eight overhead), 5th April (three) and 1st May (two east). From September onwards there were reports on three dates in that month, seven dates in October, three dates in early November and five dates in December. Although many totals did not exceed 12, Goole Fields attracted good numbers on 15th October (c.210 overhead), 25th October (28), 19th December (c.120) and 30th December (c.180). Other high counts were c.100 on 2nd November, 120+ on 4th November, 45 on 9th November, and c.120 to fields beyond Bank Top on 3rd December.


Grey Plover Pluvialis squatarola. One departed from Goole Moor on 24th November. 


Northern Lapwing Vanellus vanellus. During the first three months there were counts of up to eight occasionally, but with 94 south-west on 19th January, c.100 overhead on 25th January and 103 on Goole Fields on 23rd March. Regular during April–June, occasionally reaching 15, with 25 on 18th May and 27 on 30th June. This date heralded larger counts, reaching 53 on 9th July and c.60 on 27th

July, these latter at Will Pits Scrape. August totals began with 23 (south) on 5th, rising to c.200 on 11th, then c.60 on 15th, 62 on 24th and c.80 on 30th. September records reached 85, exceeded on 7th by c.180, c.200 next day, 104 on 12th, 113 on 26th and c.200 on 28th. Similar maxima in early October were 100+ (mainly overhead) on 1st and c.140 on 8th, but with no other totals over 67 (on 13th). In November, 64 on 18th was bettered by c.90 on 4th, 356 on 16th and c.80 next day. December figures peaked at c.250 on 19th, otherwise 41 on Goole Fields on 30th. Breeding proved, with one clutch predated by Carrion Crow.


Little Ringed Plover Charadrius dubius. The earliest records were mostly from Thorne Colliery, with the first concerning three on 29th March. Then regularly present there to 11th April, with one– two except four on the last date. One flew over the Moors on 19th April, with records during 2nd–5th May of  one–two on Goole Moor. Other May records included one along Fisons' Road North on 6th, one south on 17th and two on Goole Moor on 26th. In early June, there were two at Thorne Colliery, with subsequent attention switching to Goole Moor. After one there on 30th June, reports from July included two adults and three juveniles on 8th, when a third adult was also present. An adult and two juveniles were still present on 23rd. Goole Moor also held this species on two August dates, the last being two on 24th.      


Ringed Plover Charadrius hiaticula. Recorded in only two months, and only on Goole Moor. The six dates in May included eight on 5th, four on 6th, five on 22nd, with again four on 23rd. Lastly there were five on 10th August, with a single still lingering next day. 


Whimbrel Numenius phaeopus. Reported with certainty on two dates: 27th April (one NNE) and 4th May (one at Fisons' Road North flew off south). 


Eurasian Curlew Numenius arquata. Only 12 dates for this species, beginning with four over

Crowle Moor on 19th March and one south-west on 23rd March. There was one over Crowle Moor on 8th April, three at Inkle Flatts on 11th April, and singles on the Moors on four other April dates. One headed south on 6th May, and singles flew east in June on 17th/24th. The only record from the second half of the year involved four north on 19th December


Black-tailed Godwit Limosa limosa. The only grounded birds were two at flooded workings on the west side of the Moors on 4th May. Transient birds were seen on 23rd July (18 east in two groups) and 7th September (one north-east).


Ruff Calidris pugnax. A poor year, comprising only six dates. There was a juvenile on Goole Moor on 24th–25th August, and one east of Fisons' Road North on 30th of that month. There were singles in September on 21st (west of the Shoulder o' Mutton) and 28th (flew east). Finally, one was near the disused Swinefleet Works on 22nd October.


Dunlin Calidris alpina. With records thinly scattered over six months, the first were in April on 7th (two) and 17th (one). The first 10 days of May witnessed a light passage, one–three except five on Goole Moor on 6th. There were further singles feeding on 31st May and 23rd July, and on six dates during 10th August–5th October


Green Sandpiper Tringa ochropus. After one on 29th March and another on 23rd July, there were a few records during August–September. These latter comprised one–two on four dates, exceeded by five on 9th August and six on 4th September. In November, there was one at Bell's Pond on 12th and possibly the same bird at Thorne Colliery on 18th.


Greenshank Tringa nebularia. In May, after one on 5th there were singles on 9th/23rd–24th, then on 1st/21st June and 2nd July. The more numerous records in August commenced with seven on 9th, with three+ on 10th, five on 11th, and one–two on six subsequent dates. There were also singles on 1st/7th September and 20th October. The year's maximum was nine on 7th October. One was calling overhead on 27th December, being lost to sight as it dropped towards flooded workings (MW). The first December record.  


Wood Sandpiper Tringa glareola. One flew with four Common Snipe over Goole Moor on 22nd September (BPW).


Common Redshank Tringa totanus. Noted March–September, with the first in March being one at

Will Pits Scrape on 10th. Others in that month – mostly at flooded workings – appeared on 21st/23rd (singles), 29th (two), 30th (four) and 31st (six). Frequent in April, totals occasionally reaching four, with seven on 4th and six on 19th–20th. There were similar numbers in May, but more often four, and exceeded this on 18th (eight) and 30th (six). The June peaks were four on 5th/15th. There were only four dates in July, but they included four on 9th. During the period 7th–14th August, three records of singles were obtained, with others in September on 4th (two) and 21st (one).   


Woodcock Scolopax rusticola. Occasionally recorded in the breeding season, including during the European Nightjar census, when four 'roding' birds were encountered, two of them on Crowle Moor. Also, others were reported in the Will Pits/Will Pits Scrape area. At other times of the year, six on 7th–8th January was the year's maximum, with smaller numbers in January/November–December.

These were usually singles, but with two on 10th January and up to three during 23rd–30th November. Locations towards the end of the year included Goole Moor–Will Pits, the area west of Green Belt, and the Thorne Colliery spoilheap. At this latter location, reports included three on 23rd/30th November.


Common Snipe Gallinago gallinago. One–two occasionally during January–March, the exception being a flock of 15 west at dusk on 23rd January. Records during April–June were more numerous, with one–two but with five on 30th June.  'Drumming' males were reported from the Will Pits area, Mill Drain Marsh, the 'Middle Moor'–Southern Canals area, Pony Bridge Marsh, the Paraffin Cuttings area and "south-east moors". During the European Nightjar census, four 'chipping' or 'drumming' birds were present, one of them on Crowle Moor. After three records in July (including three on 20th), numbers fluctuated in August, but with 15 on 9th, 19+ on 10th and six+ on 11th, then seven on 25th. Frequent during September–November, with counts in September exceeding 10 on seven dates, maxima 25 on 9th and 20 east on 23rd. In October, ten heading south-west on 20th was bettered by three counts of 12–16, 24 on 15th and a notable 57 on 17th. The only double-figure count in November was 12 on 30th. The December  numbers opened with six on 1st, reached four on 25th and ended with seven on 30th.


Common Tern Sterna hirundo. Two were at flooded workings with Black-headed Gulls on 18th May, departing eastwards.  


Arctic Tern Sterna paradisaea. Twelve 'commics' on 21st April may have been this species, with three confirmed records in May. One departed north from flooded workings on 4th, six flew NNE on 23rd, and on 31st one over flooded workings flew off southwards. 


Black-headed Gull Chroicocephalus ridibundus. Small numbers occurred in January–February, maximum 15 at flooded workings along Fisons' Road on 22nd January. Larger numbers were present in March, beginning with 15 on 8th. Totals at west side floods adjacent to Snaith & Cowick Moor (at SE716180) included counts of 70–80, and 100+ on 10th, 81 on 21st, 107 on 30th and c.140 next day. At Northern Goole Moor, March counts were 48 on 21st/29th and 87 on 30th. April counts from the west side floods peaked at c.100 on 2nd/15th and c.90 on 3rd/23rd; with up to c.70 at Northern Goole Moor (on 19th). After c.70 at the west side floods on 5th May, counts there declined during the month. There was a similar drop at Northern Goole Moor in May, from 35 on 5th (mating observed), to a combined total of only nine at both sites on 18th. However, on 1st June there were 97 at the west side floods and on Goole Moor, with 43 again at the west side floods on 11th. On 8th June, two chicks were observed there, giving evidence of breeding by a single pair. Subsequent day counts during June–September reached 25, rarely more, the maxima being 68 on 15th June and c.50 on 22nd September. There were some larger totals during the period 30th September–2nd November, especially up to late October. After 257 on 30th September, there were c.220 on 3rd October, 105 on 7th, c.100 on 8th, c.750 on 20th and 234 on 30th. November counts included 96 on 2nd and a later peak of c.70 on 18th, but with c.300 north-east on 23rd. There were 121 at Moorends recreation ground on 1st December, with 57 the next highest count, on 5th. 


Common Gull Larus canus. Apart from 10 on 12th January and nine on 16th February, there were infrequent January–April records of up to four. There was an adult with Black-headed Gulls at the west side floods on 4th April. After one on 20th April, the next were four west on 9th July and four on 23rd September. Noted more frequently from 3rd October, with totals of five occasionally exceeded. These latter often involved birds in peripheral fields. After c.60 on 20th October, there were 21 on 10th November, and then in December, 34 on 4th, 61 on 7th, 18 on 9th and 19 on 27th.


Caspian Gull Larus cachinnans. In September, on 23rd there was an adult on Goole Fields with other gulls (TCL), and on 29th a third-winter with gulls near Red House Farm (TCL). In October, what was possibly the same adult was seen on 9th/20th with other gulls in a field south of the disused Swinefleet Works (TCL, BPW, GF). The fifth–eighth records.


Lesser Black-backed Gull Larus fuscus. In March, after two on 29th, an adult landed with Blackheaded Gulls at the west side floods on 31st. April records were obtained during 14th–27th, with 18 on the first date but otherwise one–three, including flying immatures. From 1st May–4th July, numbers reached four on 8th/13th June. Later in July, there was one on 11th and two on 20th. Numbers rose in August, often by pools at Creyke's or on Goole Moor. These exceeded 35 twice, on 5th (c.290) and 17th (c.220). September records, including birds in fields and at Goole Fields Reservoir, rose above c.40 on four dates: 1st (250+), 21st (c.60), 22nd (c.280) and 23rd (c.180). October figures were relatively high during the first week, with c.220 on 3rd and 76 on 7th. Thereafter, totals reached c.60 on 25th, bettered by c.80 on 20th and 162 on 31st. There were reports from five dates in November, including 14 on 2nd and 12 on 16th. There were also five dates in December, with singles on 10th/18th/20th, five on 19th and four on 27th.   


Yellow-legged Gull Larus michahellis. The sole spring record was of two on Goole Fields on 26th May; they departed south-westwards with Lesser Black-backs (TCL). There were two records in early August. Seventeen were attracted to pools on Goole Moor on 5th (TCL), with an adult by a pool at Creyke's on 10th (BPW). Reported on five September dates, with seven on Goole Fields on 8th (TCL) being relatively isolated. Later in the month, records began with 20 on 22nd at Goole Fields Reservoir (TCL), and 11 in a field at Creyke's next day (TCL). There was then an adult at 'Green Belt floods' on 28th (RJS), and six on 29th north of Red House Farm (TCL). Records during early–mid-October began on 3rd when three were in a field at Creyke's (BPW, GF), with 14 on Goole Moor on 7th (BS). Fields north and east of the Moors attracted 12 on 8th and nine adults on 13th (TCL). On the latter date a further adult was on Goole Moor (BPW). There were three adults on Goole Fields on 15th/20th October (BPW, GF, TCL), with no later records.   


Herring Gull Larus argentatus. January records were mostly of gulls passing over, probably mainly to and from Humber roosts, or moving to roost on the Moors at flooded workings. Counts of transient birds included 62 on 10th and 121 on 19th. Others seemingly roosting on the Moors reached 24 on 12th and 37 on 13th. There were few reports in February–March, but with 44 on 16th February. Records increased in number in April–early May, but totals only exceeded seven on 20th April (11 immatures east). The last were six overhead on 9th May. There was nothing further until 5th August, when five were by pools on Goole Moor. Subsequent records to the end of September were few, but included 10 on 17th August and 1st September, and 14 on 22nd September. There were more numerous records during October–December, but with little detail beyond counts. These latter sometimes involved birds passing west, and no totals exceeded 23 except on 17th October (c.80), 31st October (84), 6th November (38) and 18th November (128). At least some of the records from the latter part of the year involved counts in fields.    


Great Black-backed Gull Larus marinus. January–February records involved transient gulls and others roosting at flooded workings. Totals over 19 were obtained on two January dates: 106 to roost on 8th ("some departed NNE"), and 41 overhead on 19th. From mid-February–late April few were reported; numbers occasionally reached three, once five, maximum 19 west on 6th April. After a single immature on 26th April, hardly reported again until early October. The intervening dates were 22nd May (one immature), 5th August (c.60 on Goole Moor) and 7th/22nd September (one and six respectively). More frequent from 6th October, with occasional counts reaching 20–24 from midOctober to mid-November, but with c.60 passing over to a roost on 31st October. In December, after 15 on 1st, no counts exceeded eight.  


Stock Dove Columba oenas. Recorded in all months except October, but infrequent from May onwards. January records of singles were obtained on 11th–12th. Subsequently, there were c.40 in fields at Creyke's on 31st January, and counts in the first half of February of up to 14 (on 9th). During late March the maximum was eight in fields at Creyke's on 30th–31st. Records in April probably mostly emanated from this same location, which was certainly true of 21 on 5th, with other counts in the month of up to nine. After 21st April, there were only records on 20 dates, with maxima of four on 21st September and 14 on 22nd December. On 19th March/10th April, a pair occupied a nest-box on Crowle Moor. 


Wood Pigeon Columba palumbus. Counts sometimes exceeded c.100 in January–early February and from the beginning of October onwards. The early maximum was c.600 on 19th January. Counts exceeded c.200 during October–December, with totals beyond c.300 on 3rd November (c.1100 south during the morning), c.1000 on 13th December, and c.800 on Goole Fields on 30th December. 


Collared Dove Streptopelia decaocto. Seen throughout the year, but with most reports from April– May. Records were generally of one–two, although with four–five on four dates (April, July,

December). On 23rd January there were c.30 near the disused Swinefleet Works, with 18 nearby at Red House Farm on 2nd February. Other locations given were Crowle Moor, Rhododendron Path, Creyke's Sidings, and especially Swinefleet Gate/Bank Top, where a pair built a nest in a shed. Two perched at Mill Drain Marsh on 31st October, and then flew off east.   


Turtle Dove Streptopelia turtur. The first was at Will Pits on 28th April. Reported throughout May– June, with daily counts of one–three, occasionally four–five, plus seven on 14th May and ten on 15th June. These latter comprised five in the Durham's Garden–Green Belt area, three at Will Pits and two on Crowle Moor. Other locations in these months were Inkle Moor–Whaley Balk, Rhododendron Path, Jones' Cable, Cassons, Pony Bridge Wood–Pony Bridge, Limberlost Tram, Lonesome Pine Track, Goole Moor and Crowle Moor. The fewer records during July–August were of one–two, from the same areas. On 16th July, eight included five on telegraph wires around Thorne Colliery. There were five in the Colliery–Durham's Garden area on 24th July, and four on telegraph wires in the Jones' Cable–Colliery area on 24th August. Also five on the same wires on 4th September. These were the last, and included a juvenile bird.   


Common Cuckoo Cuculus canorus. Following the first on 20th April, frequently recorded to the end of June. Daily counts reached five occasionally, with nine on 2nd May, six on 18th/26th May and 10 on 15th June. Finally, two were present on 4th/7th July.

 A brown morph female was seen on 11th May, "struggling west against wind...landing on heather [Calluna vulgaris] frequently" (BPW, GF). The fourth record.


Barn Owl Tyto alba.  The only records until September were of one hunting over fields east of Bank Top on 3rd January, and singles on Crowle Moor on 8th April and 27th July. On 22nd September, one was flushed from a birch Betula at the eastern end of Goole Moor Tram; it perched again at the eastern end of Blackwater Dike. Later, on 28th, one was on Crowle Moor. During the year, there were additional – sometimes vague – reports from farmland around the Moors from Inkle Moor to Top House Farm, plus November reports of singles in the 'Paraffin' area on 13th and at Creyke's on 21st. 


Little Owl Athene noctua. Reported from Moorends recreation ground on 13th January (two) and in the first half of April (singles). There was one at the disused Swinefleet Works on 14th January and 15th February, with one at Red House Farm on 15th December. Another was at Jones' Cable on 1st November. Other reports were obtained from Top House Farm and the Creyke's Sidings area (May, July, October–November). 


Tawny Owl Strix aluco. After one calling on Crowle Moor on 18th February, records during March– May were again from Crowle Moor (one on 8th April), and from the Will Pits–Will Pits Scrape area. Here, a pair bred in a nest-box, with one young bird at large. Also bred at Cassons (c/3 in a birch) and on Goole Moor. During the European Nightjar census three were calling, two of them on Crowle Moor. In November–December, there were occasional reports from the Durham's Garden–Green Belt–Rhododendron Path area.


Long-eared Owl Asio otus. One was on Goole Fields on 27th February. During the European Nightjar census, five pairs were proved breeding by calling juveniles. Two of the pairs were on Crowle Moor.


Short-eared Owl Asio flammeus. There were singles in March on 13th (near the disused Swinefleet Works) and 30th (Creyke's). One was hunting at Creyke's on 8th July (TCL). On 18th November, one fairly high over Will Pits Scrape was mobbed by at least four Carrion Crows. Later in the month, on 23rd, one was at Chadwick Field. In December, there were two on Goole Moor on 13th, singles between Inkle Moor and Snaith & Cowick Fen on 26th/29th, and one along Fisons' Road on 30th. 


†European Nightjar Caprimulgus europaeus. Extreme dates were 26th May and 5th August. The annual survey, augmented by increased survey effort in one area,  revealed 57 territories, a total still regarded as conservative (Middleton Ecological Consultancy). However, this is the highest annual figure. See pp.54–59.


Common Swift Apus apus. The only April record was of four with House Martins on 27th. Frequent in May, with five on 1st and up to 23 to 6th. Then c.1000 on 7th, 1500+ on 8th, 1000+ on 10th, but with no other counts in the month exceeding c.90 except 200+ on 25th. In June, counts of c.60 were eclipsed by c.325 on 3rd, c.225 on 17th and c.250 on 19th. The fewer counts in July peaked at 38 on 9th and c.50 on 16th. August totals remained in low single figures except 24 on 10th, 15 next day, and 15 again on 25th, the last of the year.  A male Peregrine Falcon over Moorends recreation ground on 8th June held a Common Swift. 


Common Kingfisher Alcedo atthis. There were four records, beginning with two along a drain on Goole Fields on 19th March. One was at Southern Boundary Drain on 6th April. Another single was at Snaith & Cowick Fen on 18th September, and one flew across Fisons' Road towards Green Belt on 24th October.


Green Woodpecker Picus viridis. Recorded on only 19 dates. Six of these were during April–May, involving singles in the Durham's Garden–Inkle Moor–Long Meadow area, and odd singles along Middle Moor Tram, at Will Pits and on Northern Goole Moor. The seven dates in July mostly concerned singles in the Durham's Garden area. However, others were at Green Belt (two on 26th), along Middle Moor Tram (one), and on Crowle Moor (including two on 27th). The five August records were all of single birds, the recorded locations being Crowle Moor, Will Pits and Durham's Garden. The only subsequent report was of an unlocalized bird on 28th September. 


Great Spotted Woodpecker Dendrocopos major. Daily counts were generally of one–two, seen widely, but with four on 22nd March. 'Drumming' was heard at Will Pits (including two males on 31st March), and a juvenile was in a garden at Creyke's Sidings on 11th June.


Common Kestrel Falco tinnunculus. Daily counts sometimes reached three, with four on six dates (March, October–December), and higher counts on a further 14 dates. These were five on four October dates, and six on dates in September (one), October (three) and November (three). Finally, totals of seven were obtained on 14th/28th September and 15th October. One pair bred on Crowle Moor. In September, one mobbed a Peregrine Falcon on 11th and three were mobbed by Carrion Crows on 22nd. On 16th November a Common Kestrel mobbed a Merlin.  


Merlin Falco columbarius. Most records (14 dates) were in November–December, with only 10 dates during the rest of the year. These latter began with singles on 10th/22nd/29th January, involving at least a male. Further Merlins appeared on 8th/23rd March and 10th–11th April, with a female in the former month and a male and female in the latter. After a female/immature on 28th September, a juvenile was present on 15th/28th October. The November–December records mostly concerned singles. These were identified as a female/juvenile on Goole Fields on 3rd November and a female on 14th December, plus males on 30th November and 19th December. On 30th of the latter month, a male and female were hunting together at dusk. A Merlin was mobbed by a Common Kestrel on 16th November, and one chased a Common Snipe on 3rd December.   


Hobby Falco subbuteo. Reported in April on 28th (four) and 30th (one). The numerous records in May–June sometimes reached totals of five, plus six on 3rd/14th May and 2nd/10th/26th June. There were eight on 31st May and 8th June. However, the highest figures, both in May, were 15+ in the air at once on 13th and again together on 17th. There were fewer records during July–August, comprising one–four but five on 3rd August. September counts similarly reached four, including an immature on 22nd. Following this, singles were seen on 23rd/25th and also 1st October. One pair bred on Goole Moor. A Hobby interacted with a Eurasian Sparrowhawk over Crowle Moor on 15th August.


Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus. Recorded in every month, but especially September–November, peaking in October. Conversely, there were only three dates in June–July. Commencing on 25th, records in January concerned a male on that date and two adults (one of them a female) on 29th. The dates in February were 2nd (adult male), 13th (female) and 16th (adult female). There was a female in March on 10th/18th and two birds on 14th, one of them harassing two Marsh Harriers. The three dates in April were 5th (adult male and immature female), 15th (one) and 23rd (immature male). Similarly, the six dates in May were 5th–6th/10th (males) and 7th/16th/26th (singles). There were further singles in June, on 2nd/8th, the latter being a male over Moorends recreation ground clutching a Common Swift. An adult female flushed ducks on 4th July. In August, an adult male occurred on 10th– 11th/17th, followed by an immature female on 24th. More frequent in September, those specified being a female on 4th/20th/28th, an immature female on 22nd/26th, and juveniles on 23rd/30th (one) and 28th (two). The only male was an adult on 22nd.  There were 16 dates in October. Following an immature attacking a Eurasian Jay on 5th, other immatures were identified on 8th–9th (three), with an immature female on 12th/15th. There were juveniles on 7th (one) and 20th (two). During 19th–25th an adult female occurred, plus an unspecified adult on 31st. The only certain male was on 8th, on which date four Peregrine Falcons were present in total. The records during 2nd–18th November involved unspecified singles, plus two juveniles on 3rd. At the month end there was a male on 30th. This was followed in December by two juveniles (male and female) on 7th, a juvenile female on 30th, and further singles on 2nd/19th, the latter being a female chasing "pigeons". 


Great Grey Shrike Lanius excubitor. One was reported on 15 dates from 2nd January–5th April, and on 30 dates from 22nd October–30th December. There were attempts to catch Meadow Pipit (7th February) and Skylark (25th October); and mobbing by Reed Buntings occurred on 24th October.  


Magpie Pica pica. Recorded throughout the year, with records to the end of April occasionally reaching five, but 18+ on 9th February. During May–July, two were noted on 4th May, 20th June and 24th July, with three on 16th July. A family party was seen on 8th June. More frequent from 10th August, with counts of up to five exceeded by six on three dates (September, November–December), eight on 23rd September, and in October, seven on 5th and 12 on 14th.


Eurasian Jay Garrulus glandarius. Recorded throughout the year, but on only two December dates. Most often seen during April–June and September–November. Daily counts occasionally exceeded three, with four on dates in April–June and August–October. Larger numbers were five on 16th July (a family party), 24th August and 28th September; and eight on 21st September and 5th October. One of these latter successfully evaded a Peregrine Falcon by landing on the ground.


Western Jackdaw Corvus monedula. In the earlier months, present on 16th February (one west over

Will Pits) and 29th March (two calling over flooded workings). Subsequently observed on 5th May (one over Goole Moor), 7th May (one over Crowle Moor), 14th May (one over Goole Moor and two north over Will Pits), 1st June (two south-east over the Shoulder o' Mutton area) and 13th June (one over Snaith & Cowick Fen). On 22nd September, one was with Rooks in a field at Creyke's. Two records in October involved 8th (two) and 12th (one over Goole Moor).   


Rook Corvus frugilegus. Present on four dates, beginning with 21st April when one crossed the Moors from west to east. On 5th May two flew south over the Moors. The most significant records were from September. On 22nd, 18 immatures were in a field at Creyke's; and on 28th c.250 flew over Crowle Moor, doubtless from nearby agricultural land.  


Carrion Crow Corvus corone. There were few records during May–July. Many counts during the year did not exceed 20, but there were totals up to c.50 in January, March–May and August–October. Larger counts were obtained in the first half of January, with maxima on 8th (c.80), 13th (58) and 14th (c.300 to roost). A nest was found on Crowle Moor on 18th April, and a young bird was reported on 21st June. Further high counts were recorded on 22nd September (c.60) and 31st October (c.310 to roost). High counts in November were forthcoming from 18th (148), 23rd (c.60 to roost) and 30th (400+ roosted at Will Pits). In December, c.200 roosted at the Shoulder o' Mutton on 1st. In the second half of the month, roost-flights were watched on 15th (c.160), 24th (c.200), 29th (c.140) and 30th (c.110). A Northern Lapwing clutch was predated by Carrion Crow.


Goldcrest Regulus regulus. Few records in the early months, comprising singles on five dates, two on 5th March and three on 18th February/8th March. The only April date was 8th, when one was carrying feathers at Durham's Garden. After two on 7th September, recorded frequently to the end of the year. Counts exceeded five on dates from September–November, with eight on 23rd/29th September and 16th October, and 10 on 21st September, 20th October and 10th/28th November. In December, after four on 1st and three on 4th, no totals exceeded two. 


Bearded Tit Panurus biarmicus. Present in October, with records from five dates. First seen along Fisons' Road on 5th (four), 12th (perhaps four, unseen in fog), 13th (single male and female) and 14th (at least two males and two females) (RJS, BPW, DB, JS). Later in the month, on 22nd, two were on Goole Moor at Swinefleet Warping Drain (BS). There was a single November report: two along Fisons' Road at Green Belt on 8th (WHP). 


Woodlark Lullula arborea. Singles sang in the southern part of Crowle Moor on 5th/19th March and 10th/23rd April (PL).


Skylark Alauda arvensis. Winter records were rare, with occasional dates in January–February and December, comprising one–two except eight on 16th February. More frequent in March from 8th, with counts occasionally reaching five–six. From April–August there were similar numbers, plus seven on 12th/21st April. September figures reached eight on 7th, but with 36 on 21st and 45 next day. These were composed of birds in fields and passing east on both dates. The main month was October, with counts of 20 exceeded occasionally by 30–37, and respective counts on 23rd–25th of

43, 44 and 45, the latter heading south. Beyond 58 east on 9th, larger totals were 152+ on 5th (overhead, except 80+ in one flock east of Bank Top), 115 on 8th and c.190 east on 13th. There were lower counts in November, reaching 16 on 16th and with the last in that month on 18th. 


Sand Martin Riparia riparia. After three over Goole Moor on 31st March, there were periodical records in April–May: nine on 2nd April and then one–eight until the last on 9th May. On 3rd June, there were c.300 feeding in the Paraffin Cuttings area. Only otherwise recorded in August, on 10th (two), 11th (10), 17th (20), 24th (12) and 25th (58). 


Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica. Following a single westerly flying individual on 4th April, and odd subsequent birds, there were six on 10th, 36 on 12th, 16 on 13th, and then totals again from 17th (26+), reaching 36 on 20th, 65 on 25th and 37 on 26th–27th. May records exceeded 25 occasionally, with 50+ on 1st, 500+ on 8th and c.100 on 10th/25th. There were fewer June–July reports, maximum six, except 30 on 24th July. There were higher figures in August, exceeding 40+ on 10th (c.70), 11th (96), 17th (72 east), 22nd (300+), 24th (102 feeding), 25th (c.300 feeding), 26th (150+) and 30th (c.100). September counts of 20–40 included 25 on 28th, and higher totals of c.200 on 14th and 129 on 18th. The October records comprised passing birds on 7th (one east), 10th (three south), 14th (one) and 19th (one south).   


House Martin Delichon urbicum. Records began with two at Will Pits Scrape on 12th April, with two–four on seven further dates in that month, plus 16 on 20th and 29 on 27th. Records were obtained on nine May dates, three June dates and two in July, with no more than six except in early June: 18 on 5th and eight on 8th. The eight August dates often gave relatively high totals, with 20 on 11th/24th, 24 on 10th, 30 on 25th, and the year's maximum of 38 on 17th. After six on 1st September, there were further records at the end of the month: on 21st (one), 22nd (nine), 23rd (three) and 26th (five).


Blue Tit Cyanistes caeruleus. Daily counts rarely exceeded six, with counts of seven–nine on five dates (January–March, December), and 12 on 7th January and 18th/26th December. Breeding evidence was obtained on 14th May (a nest at Will Pits), 1st June (fledged young along Jones' Cable), 15th June (juveniles at Will Pits and in the Yorkshire Triangle) and 16th July (an adult and four juveniles along Rhododendron Path).


Great Tit Parus major. Counts occasionally exceeded seven, with totals of eight on five dates (January, March–April, June, December). There were 17 on 2nd January, 20 on 14th October and 10 on 28th November. Young birds were seen in June on 15th (two in the Yorkshire Triangle) and 21st  (no location).  


Coal Tit Periparus ater. Singles occurred on Crowle Moor on 11th January/22nd February, and at Will Pits on 15th February. Noted in March on 8th/22nd (two) and 5th/19th/25th/30th (one). Seen singly in the first half of April (3rd/10th–11th/15th), with one at Will Pits on 27th. There were three records in May. On 7th one was on Crowle Moor. On 14th, one feeding its mate at Will Pits indicated a breeding pair (RB). A few days later, on 17th, one was along Lonesome Pine Track (in the Scots Pine Pinus sylvestris). Other dates from the middle of the year were 11th June (one in Woodpecker Wood), 13th June (one on Crowle Moor), 2nd July (one on Crowle Moor), and 11th July ("young" on

Crowle Moor). Then three in August: 15th/20th (singles on Crowle Moor) and 24th (one at Durham's

Garden). After one on Crowle Moor on 20th September, there were six records from mid-October–1st November, with singles on 16th–17th/26th October and the November date, with two on 14th and two+ on 25th. Locations given included Will Pits. The only later records were one on 18th December (on Crowle Moor) and two on 27th.


Willow Tit Poecile montana. Recorded regularly, with many counts of one–two, 16 counts of three (January, March–April, June–July, September–November), and eight counts of four (March, June,

August, October–November). Five were reported on 24th August, 21st/23rd September and 12th

October. Singing males were in the Will Pits–Will Pits Scrape area in March on 9th (two) and 19th (three). Breeding evidence was obtained in June on 6th (an adult feeding a juvenile at Green Belt), 8th (a family party at Jones' Cable), 14th (a family party at Will Pits) and 15th (two young in the Yorkshire Triangle). Also, a juvenile was reported on Crowle Moor on 11th July. Overall, the given locations demonstrate the overwhelming importance of the Will Pits area for this declining species. Other parts of significance were Goole Moor, Crowle Moor, 'Middle Moor' and the Inkle Moor–Long Meadow–Durham's Garden–Jones' Cable stretch. Also individual locations like Creyke's and the 'Paraffin' area. Pony Bridge Wood may also be significant, but was visited less frequently. Often, seemingly favoured locations can be merely an artefact of observer bias, but the importance of Will Pits to Willow Tits seems clear.      


Cetti's Warbler Cettia cetti. One was calling along Swinefleet Warping Drain c.380m north of Swinefleet Gate on 27th October and 3rd November (TCL). The first record.


Long-tailed Tit Aegithalos caudatus. Monthly maxima were 20, 20+, 16, five, four, 10 (including juveniles), five, 15,12, 46, 20, 18. Nest-building was noted on 19th March (in a willow Salix) and 18th April (in a Hawthorn Crataegus monogyna). Juveniles were seen on 14th May, on three June dates and on 16th July. The October maximum of 46 was on 20th, the next highest being 26 on 12th.


Common Chiffchaff Phylloscopus collybita. After singles on 7th/10th/14th March, frequently recorded, with maxima in March of 19 on 29th and in April of 22 on 5th. There were lower counts from 12th April, and during May–August the  maximum was nine on 16th July. A juvenile was being fed on 19th May, and further juveniles were seen on 21st June. Counts in September reached six on three dates. There were October records during 1st–20th, with maxima of five on 7th and 15 next day, with the last being a singing male on 20th. However, on 10th December one was at Bank Top (MW).   


Willow Warbler Phylloscopus trochilus. Records commenced with two on 3rd April, with totals exceeding 10 from 11th (25), peaking at 32 on 19th and 33 next day. May records were unexceptional (maximum 14), but 73 on 18th. The same comment was true for June–July (maximum 11). Breeding evidence included juveniles being seen/fed, and a nest found in Heather at Mill Drain. Counts in August beyond eight+ were obtained on 9th (10) and 11th (15). After six+ on 24th August, the only records involved September birds on 4th (one) and 16th (seven). 


Blackcap Sylvia atricapilla. In March, after one on 7th, there were records from 30th, and regularly in April. The maximum was 15 on 18th–19th. Counts during May–August occasionally reached six, with July exceptions on 16th (eight) and 28th (seven). A c/5 was noted in a birch on 14th May. There were records in August from 11th–24th (maximum four), and then on three dates in early September. On 1st, six were feeding in Elders Sambucus nigra, with others on 7th (two) and 8th (one female).    


Garden Warbler Sylvia borin. After one on 24th April, reported regularly to the end of May. Most counts were of one–three, the main location being Will Pits–Will Pits Scrape. There were higher counts in May on 3rd (seven) and 18th (four). Later records were restricted to a mere five dates: 8th June (two), 13th June (eight), 11th July (one), 12th July (two) and 15th August (one).  


Lesser Whitethroat Sylvia curruca. Typically elusive, being restricted to five dates. In April, there were singles singing on 23rd (Jones' Cable) and 29th (Creyke's). There was then one along Jones' Cable on 5th May, and singles on Crowle Moor on 7th May and at Will Pits on 24th August. 


Common Whitethroat Sylvia communis. After one at the disused Swinefleet Works on 15th April, regular on the Moors from 17th. Counts exceeded 10 on 27th (15). Again, May records occasionally reached 10, with 12–14 on three dates and 20 on 2nd. June counts were lower, peaking at seven on 17th, with July totals attaining eight on 24th. On 1st June, two nests were found at Green Belt, containing hungry young and a c/5 respectively. Recorded during 11th–24th August, one–two except eight on the latter date. There were September counts on 1st (four) and 7th (three).


Grasshopper Warbler Locustella naevia. After two on 10th April, the month's maximum was nine on 21st. May–June counts were of one–three except on two June dates: 1st (six) and 13th (11). The few records from July–August involved one–two, and there was one on 11th September. During the European Nightjar census, 35 'reeling' males were recorded, regarded as a minimal figure.


Sedge Warbler Acrocephalus schoenobaenus. After one on 15th April, counts during April–May fluctuated, often in single figures, but there were others of 10–16, and 29 on 27th April and 20 next day. Up to seven in June were overshadowed by 25 on 13th. There were one–two occasionally during 12th July–24th August, plus the last on 11th September. 


Reed Warbler Acrocephalus scirpaceus. One sang at Will Pits on 18th April, with others regularly from 23rd. To the end of July, counts reached six, with eight on 15th May, 10 on 17th May and 15 on 13th June. After 28th July, the sole record was of one on 24th August. Named locations were the Paraffin Cuttings area, Durham's Garden, Middle Moor Tram, Fisons' Road, Green Belt–Green Belt Scrape, Will Pits–Will Pits Scrape, and several locations along Swinefleet Warping Drain.


Eurasian Treecreeper Certhia familiaris. January records involved one on 2nd at Will Pits, two (no location) on 7th, and one on 18th on Crowle Moor. A single was also on Crowle Moor on 22nd February. Two were at Will Pits on 15th February and 30th March, and one was at Pony Bridge Wood on 4th March. One sang on Crowle Moor on 19th March. Reported singly in April on 19th (Goole Moor) and 20th ("Paraffin area"). At Will Pits, there were two on 3rd/14th May, "probably nesting" on the latter date. During June–September, records were attained of singles on 20th June (Will Pits), 24th August (Durham's Garden), 20th September (Crowle Moor), 23rd September (Pony Bridge Wood) and 28th September (Will Pits). Singles were logged on seven dates in the second half of October, the only named locations being Will Pits and Will Pits Scrape. November records were midmonth: 16th (Bank Top) and 18th (Will Pits). Reported in December on 1st (one), 4th (two), 22nd (one) and 27th (one); the first was at Will Pits Scrape, the rest at Will Pits.    


Wren Troglodytes troglodytes. Counts throughout the year exceeded single figures in January, March–April and November–December. These varied from 10–20, plus April counts of 40+ on 12th and 24 on 19th–20th, and towards the end of the year, 32 on 30th November. Bred on Crowle Moor.


Common Starling Sturnus vulgaris. Recorded infrequently and largely unexceptionally during January–March. Of interest was a roost-flight of c.220 on 13th January, and c.40 in a field at Creyke's on 30th March. Almost unreported from April–mid-September, with the only record in the former month being 100+ on Crowle Moor on 3rd. There was only a single in May, on 23rd. Noted in June on 5th (five), 7th (a few at Moorends recreation ground) and 19th (two over flooded workings). The next were on 16th July (c.30 at Moorends recreation ground) and 24th August (c.180 at Jones' Cable). From 21st–30th September there were several records, including totals of 20–44, plus c.50 on 29th in the Thorne Colliery–Moorends recreation ground area. In the second half of October, several counts of up to c.80 were submitted, with higher figures on 22nd (c.110), 25th (c.8000 from a roost at Swinefleet Warping Drain on Goole Fields), 30th (362, many in from the east) and 31st (c.1600 to roost in the north-eastern quarter of Goole Moor). November counts reached c.610 on 9th, and mostly involved birds feeding in fields or roosting/moving to roost. Those feeding on Goole Fields exceeded this number. They totalled c.10,000+ on 1st, rising to c.16,000 on 3rd, these latter including a flock of c.12,000 around Goole Fields Reservoir. On 4th, there were 1000+ in fields east of Bank Top. Counts in mid-month were 2236 on 16th, and 1183+ on 18th, these latter roosting in Common Reeds Phragmites communis immediately south of Will Pits. This same roost featured in December, comprising c.2500 on 13th and c.1500 on 15th. Others involved with roost flighting numbered c.420 on 1st and c.200 on 19th. Further counts reached c.100 or so, maximum c.180 on 2nd.  


Rose-coloured Starling Pastor roseus. A first-summer bird was present on 6th–7th June at Moorends recreation ground, in adjacent gardens and in the Thorne Colliery area (BPW, RJS, CA). It had been present since c.3rd June. The bird was drinking at a puddle with a few Common Starlings on 7th (JS, RS). The first record. 


Ring Ouzel Turdus torquatus. One was along the northern edge of Goole Moor on 20th October (TCL). It is of interest to note that beyond the recording area, at Top House, a female fed on garden  berries on 12th–14th April (JH, BPW, JD).


Blackbird Turdus merula. Counts in January reached 26 on 13th and 27 on 24th. Subsequently, counts from February–mid-November rarely exceeded single figures, but with 11–20 on six dates in April, June and September. From mid-November until the end of the year some totals were significant, beginning in November with 15 on 18th and 20 on 21st. December counts occasionally reached 18, with 58+ on 1st, 83+ on 5th, 41 on 10th and 52 on 25th. Bred along Jones' Cable and at Will Pits.    


Fieldfare Turdus pilaris. January counts were of up to 64, but with 88 on 12th. The only February figure beyond 35 was 48 on 2nd. Totals in March included c.60–85 in fields at Creyke's, plus 132 there on 29th. After 100+ on Crowle Moor on 3rd April, there were c.30 on Goole Moor on 4th, eight near the disused Swinefleet Works on 14th, with seven at nearby Red House Farm next day. The next were c.30 on 15th October, with counts rising at the end of the month. There were c.700 (many in from the east) on 30th and 56 on 31st. November peaks comprised 118 on 3rd, c.370 on 8th, c.180 on 10th, c.380 on 11th, several counts of c.100–c.120 during 13th–22nd, c.250 on 23rd, and 500+ roosting on Goole Moor on 30th. During the first 10 days of December, there were 256+ on 1st, 217 roosting at Green Belt Scrape on 2nd, 167+ on 5th, c.880 on 6th, and c.100 on 10th. Subsequently, the only counts over 63 were 177 on 18th and 255 next day.  


Song Thrush Turdus philomelos. Not recorded August/November. The number of birds per day only exceeded two on six dates, involving three on dates in March/May–June. In addition, breeding was noted at Will Pits, including an adult at a nest with four juveniles on 14th May.  


Redwing Turdus iliacus. Counts in January reached 20 on 13th and c.60 on 25th. There were no subsequent counts over 20 in the early months, except March records of c.30 on 8th and 55 west on 18th. After two on 1st April, the last were seven at Moorends recreation ground on 3rd. Subsequently, after five on 10th October, counts reached c.300 on 14th and 64 on 30th. In November there were infrequent totals of 45–52, and December maxima of 85 on 4th, c.120 on 6th and 44 on 25th.    


Mistle Thrush Turdus viscivorus. Including Moorends recreation ground, recorded on 57 dates but with few details, and no reports from May/August. Usually one–three, occasionally four, maxima five on 9th/19th June, six on 24th July and 5th/14th October, and eight at Moorends recreation ground on 16th July.  


Spotted Flycatcher Muscicapa striata. Found on four dates. After one at Pony Bridge Wood on 17th May, a few days later, on 26th, one was on Goole Moor. Three were on Crowle Moor on 20th August; the observer (PL) speculated that they may have been a family group, and were not seen on other dates. On 8th September one was flycatching at Natural England's depot at Will Pits.


Robin Erithacus rubecula. There were no counts in double figures in January–February, but occasional totals of 10–15 in March–April. Records during May–August were unexceptional, although there were then September counts of 12 on 1st, 25 on 23rd and 15 on 29th. Also 12 on 23rd October. For the rest of October–December no count exceed 10.


Pied Flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca. A female/juvenile was on Crowle Moor on 12th August (PS). The fourth modern record. 


Black Redstart Phoenicurus ochruros. A male was found at the disused Swinefleet Works on 14th January (BS), and was seen periodically until 2nd February. The fifth record.


Common Redstart Phoenicurus phoenicurus. Seen on two dates: 17th April (a female at Durham's Garden), and 16th July (a juvenile along Rhododendron Path, often chased by a Robin).


Whinchat Saxicola rubetra. There was a male at Creyke's on 23rd April, and a juvenile at Goole Fields Reservoir on 5th August. Three were seen in September on 18th (at Snaith & Cowick Fen) and 23rd (nearby at the western end of Blackwater Dike).  Four singing birds were reported on 23rd June around the Viewing Platform, in compartments 47 (one) and 42 (three) (PM).


†European Stonechat Saxicola rubicola. Recorded on 141 dates. Records in January concerned single males and females, with a second male on at least 31st. There was a pair in February, including along Fisons' Road and adjacent Middle Moor Tram, plus two pairs along Fisons' Road on 16th. On 18th, there was a male and two females along Goole Moor Tram and a pair along Mervyn's

Tram. Noted in March on 16th (a pair along Mervyn's Tram), 21st (three males and two females), 23rd (a male along Middle Moor Tram at Fisons' Road) and 30th (a pair on Goole Moor, plus three males and one female along Fisons' Road and at the Viewing Platform). April details centred on pairs in three areas: along Fisons' Road, near the Viewing Platform and on Goole Moor. On 15th, there was one at Will Pits Scrape and two males and a female along Mervyn's Tram. May records were somewhat fragmentary, but a pair had juveniles along Fisons' Road at Green Belt. Single males were seen near the Viewing Platform (5th), near Will Pits (16th) and on Snaith & Cowick Moor (22nd). On 30th, three+ males, one female and four juveniles were reported. The monthly maximum was otherwise five on four dates. June records began with a male and juvenile on 1st. A female was along Middle Moor Tram on 3rd, with two juveniles along Fisons' Road on 6th. On 11th there was a male "in the north-west", followed by a juvenile on Goole Moor on 13th. A pair was at the Viewing Platform on 15th, with a single at 'Middle Moor' on 18th, and a juvenile along Fisons' Road at Green Belt on 20th. Records towards the end of the month included three juveniles at Creyke's on 30th. From the beginning of July until mid-September there were only six dates, commencing with a male carrying food at 'Middle Moor' on 2nd July. There were then three juveniles along Fisons' Road at Green Belt on 4th, and two males along Eastern Boundary Tram on 24th.

 The August dates were 3rd (a pair and two juveniles along Fisons' Road) and 24th (one male along Fisons' Road). On 7th September there was a juvenile on Goole Moor. The more frequent reports later in September included a pair at Creyke's on 17th, five (including two males) on 20th, seven (five along Fisons' Road North and two on Goole Moor) on 21st, 11 (including five+ males) on 22nd (Pony Bridge Marsh, 'Middle Moor', Fisons' Road and Goole Moor), and two males and two females on 23rd. Records towards the end of the month included a male at Creyke's on 26th, and two males, one female and two juveniles on 29th in the Southern Canals–Viewing Platform area. On 30th, 20 were encountered, including 11 males (MW). Seen on a majority of October dates, commencing with 11 along Fisons' Road on 3rd and eight there on 5th. There were 12 (six males) on 7th, and next day six, including four males (Fisons' Road and Goole Moor cited). Other birds along Fisons' Road included 12 on 12th and occasionally up to five there on other October dates. Further records from the Moors included totals of 10 (eight males) on 15th, seven on 16th, six (four males) on 23rd, 13 on 24th, 12 on 25th and nine on 29th–30th. Daily counts in November were notable on 1st (10, including five males), 2nd (nine, including five males), 4th (seven), 13th (five, including three males) and 16th (nine). No totals in the second half of the month exceeded four. Most stipulated locations in November involved Fisons' Road/Middle Moor Tram, with others being Crowle Moor, Will Pits and the 'Paraffin' area. There were many records in December, but with few details beyond day counts, which exceeded four on 3rd (six), 13th (five) and 27th (10). Fisons' Road figured in some of the records, and a pair was on Crowle Moor on 18th.    


Northern Wheatear Oenanthe oenanthe. Two separate birds, one of them a male, were seen on 10th March, with a further male on 23rd. Present on many dates throughout April, with daily totals of one– two, and three on 14th/17th/24th. May records extended to 19th, of one–two but four+ on 7th. August records, from 10th–30th, were of singles, with males only reported on 14th/26th.There were records in September of singles on 17th/21st and two on 20th. Single females were seen on 3rd/8th October.


Dunnock Prunella modularis. Daily counts rarely exceeded three, with four occasionally in January, September and November–December. In addition, December counts reached five on 1st/5th/25th, and six on 21st. 


House Sparrow Passer domesticus. Most records were from Creyke's Sidings, with counts there of up to 22 (in June/September), although there were c.40 on 11th August. Also encountered at Moorends recreation ground (including 10 on 16th July), and Red House Farm (three on 15th April).  


Tree Sparrow Passer montanus. Reported from Creyke's Sidings in most months from January– May, maximum 10 on 2nd April. In the Creyke's Sidings–Creyke's area there were records from early August–early October, including 18+ in a bean field at Creyke's on 25th August, and 100+ in gardens and fields at Creyke's Sidings on 9th September. Subsequently in the latter month, fields at Creyke's attracted 20 on 17th and 200+ on 25th, but only 15 next day. Finally, there were three at Creyke's Sidings on 8th October. Elsewhere, occasional singles occurred on Crowle Moor in each month.

Additionally, on the eastern edge of Crowle Moor there were 20 on 2nd February and 25 on 19th March. Also, 25+ along Jones' Cable on 30th March, and three at Top Moor Farm on 6th July. Odd birds were also present at Swinefleet Gate (April–August), on Crowle Moor on 30th April, and along Fisons' Road at Green Belt on 3rd October.  


Yellow Wagtail Motacilla flava. After one near the disused Swinefleet Works on 14th April, there were 12 in fields east of Red House Farm on 17th and one on Crowle Moor on 18th. Subsequent totals during April–August occasionally reached six in July–August, but with seven on 25th May. After up to three in early September, there were singles on 21st/30th. On 15th June, a pair was "flying into wheat field with food for young".


Grey Wagtail Motacilla cinerea. A good year, including a rare June record of one on 30th heading north along Swinefleet Warping Drain at Pony Bridge Marsh. Otherwise restricted to September– October. In the first month, one was at Will Pits Scrape on 7th, with further singles on Goole Moor on 22nd–23rd/26th, the latter along Swinefleet Warping Drain. Also, one was at Moorends recreation ground on 29th. Present in October on 3rd (one along Swinefleet Warping Drain on Goole Moor) and 7th (one along Swinefleet Line Dike).   


Pied Wagtail Motacilla alba. Seen throughout the year, mostly one–three, but occasionally four–five during March–April, August and October. Higher figures were 10 (at Moorends recreation ground) on 16th July, and seven–eight on four dates in August–September. Fledged young were seen at Bank Top on 11th June and on Crowle Moor on 11th July. 


Tree Pipit Anthus trivialis. The first were four on Crowle Moor on 23rd April, and one between Elmhirst Tram and Cassons next day. There was one east of the Viewing Platform on 28th, and two along Nelson's Tram (Crowle Moor) on 30th. In May, present on Crowle Moor on 1st (one) and 7th (two), one sang along Collis's Tram on 15th, as did one along Lonesome Pine Track on 17th–18th. On

19th, three sang on Crowle Moor. In June, one sang along Goole Moor Tram on 1st, three sang on Crowle Moor on 5th/21st, and one was along Pony Bridge Tram on 26th. The only July record involved two singing on Crowle Moor on 11th, the last of the year.  


Meadow Pipit Anthus pratensis. Records were scarce during January–February/July, with respective monthly maxima of five, seven and 10. Numerously present during March–June, with counts of 10–16 in each month. There were up to 10 in August, but with some higher figures in September. These occasionally reached 25, but with c.50 on 1st, 218 on 7th, 208 (many moving east) on 21st and 72 (mainly grounded) next day. The numerous October counts reached 24 on 17th and 52 on 24th. November totals rarely exceeded four, most notably 28 on 18th (at Thorne Colliery spoilheap) and 21

on 30th. Numbers in December did not exceed two. 


Rock Pipit Anthus petrosus. Four records in October may have involved only one bird. The first occurrence was one on 12th, flying east along Fisons' Road at the junction with Middle Moor Tram (BPW, RJS, JS). On 20th, one was flushed by a Eurasian Sparrowhawk from pools on Goole Moor (TCL). One was heard near Swinefleet Gate on 22nd (BS), and one was at Goole Fields Reservoir on 27th (TCL). The third–sixth records. 


Brambling Fringilla montifringilla.  There were only two certain records: on 30th November (one in a garden at Creyke's Sidings) and 4th December (one at Will Pits). 


Common Chaffinch Fringilla coelebs. Counts in January exceeded single figures on 4th (29), 10th (c.40), 12th (406) and 24th (344), all involving a roost at Durham's Garden.  From February–October, totals did not exceed 18 except c.30 feeding on Fisons' Road on 30th October. November details included c.110 on 6th, 51 on 12th, 135 on 18th and c.100 on 21st, all again involving a roost at Durham's Garden. This same roost held significant numbers in December, on 5th (166), 10th (407), 21st (182), 23rd (464), 24th (318), 25th (281) and 31st (220).


Bullfinch Pyrrhula pyrrhula. Although present throughout the year, totals rarely exceeded six, with eight on 22nd January and 1st November, and 11 on 16th February. A female Eurasian Sparrowhawk pursued a Bullfinch on 6th January. 


Greenfinch Chloris chloris. Records throughout the year were generally unremarkable, with singlefigure counts except on 15th October (20), 23rd October (17) and 12th November (27). In addition, a small roost in November–December at Durham's Garden peaked at 11 on 5th December. 


Linnet Linaria cannabina. January totals exceeded c.80 twice. Both involved birds in fields at Creykes: c.300 on 19th and c.200 on 31st. After c.100 in a field east of Bank Top on 9th February, there were significant numbers again at the end of March. These involved the Creyke's fields, and peaked on 27th (c.120), 29th (123) and 31st (58). The numerous April records reached 20 on 5th and 41 on 19th. May–August records achieved 12 on 5th June. A nest with a c/6 found on 29th June was amongst fallen birch and Bracken Pteridium aquilinum. In the second half of September, the fields at Creyke's held c.100–c.140 on three dates, plus c.200 on 21st/26th, c.250 on 20th and c.500 on 28th. Similarly in October–November, these fields attracted up to c.200, with c.300 on 12th October, c.230 on 6th November and c.250 on 17th November. There were also 150+ in fields at Crowle Moor on 20th September, and c.100 on Goole Moor on 30th November. Counts in December included c.100 on 4th (no details) and 192 on 24th, these latter apparently flying over 'Middle Moor' to a roost.    


Twite Linaria flavirostris. Nine were on Goole Fields on 12th March, one of them singing (TCL). It is of interest to note that on 25th November, beyond the recording area, there were three+ on Quay Lane, alongside the lowest reach of Swinefleet Warping Drain (PH, BSm). 


Lesser Redpoll Acanthis cabaret. Totals during January–February reached 12 on 22nd January, 24 on 29th January and 17 on 2nd February. After nine on 19th March and two on 29th March, there were singles on five dates from 30th March–16th April. Until October, the only other record was of one on 21st September. October–December records of one–three were occasionally exceeded by up to 10, with 13 on 15th October, 16 on 23rd October, 15 on 21st November and 27 (south) on 30th November. 


Common Redpoll Acanthis flammea. Two were feeding along Fisons' Road at Green Belt on 8th January (BPW).


Goldfinch Carduelis carduelis. Counts in January reached 42, plus 53 on 16th and 52 on 30th, at Swinefleet Gate and Will Pits respectively. Totals during February–July peaked at 23 on 9th February and c.30 on 24th July. August records included 36 at Bank Top on 14th and 39 at Will Pits on 26th. During September, up to 39 were in the Will Pits area, plus 27 at Swinefleet Gate on 4th. October details included counts of up to 54, exceeded by c.90 at Chadwick Field on 5th, and c.70–c.80 during 8th–13th. However, these numbers were completely overshadowed by c.530 on Goole Fields on 20th (TCL). During November–December, counts attained c.70 on 28th November and c.60 on 7th December. On Crowle Moor, there was nest-building on 10th April and young birds on 11th July. 


Siskin Spinus spinus. Encountered twice in February, on 2nd (one) and 21st (four), the latter at Creyke's. In March, there were two on Crowle Moor on 27th, and one flew over Will Pits on 31st.

Singles occurred in April on 1st/11th, with two on 6th. The last of spring were two over Goole Moor on 14th May. Records resumed in October, comprising singles on 3rd/22nd/24th, three on 5th and four on 22nd. There were three November dates. On 1st, two flew over Bank Top, with one over Thorne Colliery (leaving a roost) on 6th, and one heard at Will Pits on 30th. 


[Snow Bunting Plectrophenax nivalis. One was on Goole Fields at Goole Grange, beyond the study area, on 24th November (TCL)]. 


Yellowhammer Emberiza citrinella. Very infrequent during January–February/December, although with four on 24th January. More records in March were mostly of one–six, but in a goat field adjoining Crowle Moor there were 25+ on 5th, 20 on 16th, 30+ on 19th and 18 on 21st. Throughout the rest of the year daily counts occasionally reached six, but with 10 on 6th April, 11 on 18th May, and seven on 16th July. 


Reed Bunting Emberiza schoeniclus. Daily counts attained 15 in January–February and up to 21 during 21st–31st March (maximum on 29th). April totals reached 16 on 20th and 20 next day. In May, 14 on 6th was exceeded by 25 on 18th. During June–August, maxima of 14–16 were eclipsed by 21 on 3rd June. There was evidence of breeding at Green Belt Scrape. September counts greater than 12 were obtained on five dates, these being 1st (20), 7th (18), 11th (30) and 21st–22nd (38). Counts fluctuated in October–November, sometimes beyond 10, beginning with a cluster of dates in the first week of October, when the peaks were 22 on 3rd and 49 on 5th. There were also c.50 on 16th October and 14 next day. The three notable November totals were c.50 on 4th, 25 on 25th and 18 on 28th. December counts of six were bettered by 19 on 25th.




Mole Talpa europaea. One was found dead on Fisons' Road at Will Pits on 25th August.


Common Shrew Sorex araneus. There were occasional reports of dead individuals along Fisons' Road (March–April/December). Additionally, three were dead on Goole Moor on 16th April.


Pygmy Shrew Sorex minutus. One dead alongside Fisons' Road (at SE721164) on 16th September.


Water Shrew Neomys fodiens. One was in a drain near the Paraffin Cuttings on 12th April (JD).


Rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus. Reported fairly frequently from 21st March–25th August in the Will

Pits–Swinefleet Warping Drain area. In addition to occasional counts of 10, there were 10+ on 27th April, 20 on 24th May, and then 20+ on 16th June, 20th July and 11th/17th August. At Will Pits, Rabbits infected with myxomatosis were reported in August from 11th, plus one on 8th October. There were no records anywhere during September–December, except on 8th October (above) and three on 30th December, also at Will Pits. A Stoat was watched dragging a Rabbit on 6th June.


Brown Hare Lepus europaeus. Although there were records on 55 dates, there were relatively few outwith April–August. These comprised sightings in January (19th), February (10th/16th), March (21st/29th), September (8th–9th), October (1st), November (28th) and December (7th/30th). Throughout the year most counts were of one–two. However, there were sometimes three (especially April–May, but also July–August), and four on 6th April and 5th May. On Goole Moor, "young" were present on 13th–14th May, and a leveret was encountered at Creyke's on 21st May. The most frequently reported locations were Goole Moor–Goole Fields and the Creyke's–Snaith & Cowick Moor–Fisons' Road North area. Occasional reports from elsewhere included Crowle Moor and adjacent fields.   


Grey Squirrel Sciurus carolinensis. Singles were at Will Pits on 7th–8th January and 18th December, and at the Entrance Bridge at Whaley Balk on 5th April. One was at "Limberlost" on 24th June.


Water Vole Arvicola terrestris. In March, there were singles at Green Belt Scrape on 19th and at Blackwater Dike on 30th. The five April records included two single animals (Rhododendron Path and Southern Boundary Drain) on 6th/18th. On 7th, one swam in a ditch on Northern Goole Moor, and on 9th one was in Durham's Warping Drain at Long Meadow. Finally in April, on 24th, one was in a drain at Fillingham's Gate. The two May dates were 2nd (Northern Goole Moor) and 25th (Fillingham's Gate). At this latter location, further singles were seen in the drain on 2nd June and 14th/26th August. Finally, there was one in Durham's Warping Drain (no location) on 24th October.


Wood Mouse Apodemus sylvaticus. Single mice were seen at Natural England's depot at Will Pits on 6th May, and at the western end of Goole Moor on 13th October.


Brown Rat Rattus norvegicus. One was in a field adjoining Creyke's on 22nd September. A Common Buzzard had a Brown Rat over Long Meadow on 19th December. 


Harvest Mouse Micromys minutus. On 13th November, one was seen in Common Reeds at the western end of Southern Boundary Drain (SE713152) (MW). A nest was found and photographed c.10th December along the track to the Viewing Platform (map ref. SE731154).


Fox Vulpes vulpes. Regarded as increasing in frequency, with records from 55+ dates, in all months except January/July. On most of these dates there were singles, occasionally two. Many of the sightings were from Will Pits and adjacent areas, including Bank Top and fields to the east. Sightings were also obtained elsewhere on Goole Moor and on Goole Fields. Other stated locations included Creyke's, Fisons' Road/Fisons' Road North, Middle Moor Tram, Eastern Boundary Tram and Chadwick Field. In June, there were day-counts of three on 12th (no details) and 13th ("playing together" on Goole Moor). In addition, four on 20th June comprised three on Fisons' Road and a cub at Bank Top. Additionally, there were two cubs on Goole Moor on 20th May. A Fox had a Mallard duckling on 8th June, and Foxes were the likely cause of breeding failure by Common Cranes. 


Stoat Mustela erminea. Recorded on 23 dates, always singly unless stated otherwise. The earliest records, from 21st March to the end of May, were from Fisons' Road/Fisons' Road North, Will Pits and the adjacent stretches of Swinefleet Warping Drain and Blackwater Dike. Reported on five dates during 5th June–9th August; these included two juveniles along Fisons' Road North on 5th June, and one dragging a Rabbit next day. The only other location was Will Pits. Apart from one at Inkle Flatts on 16th September, the remaining records were from mid-October to the year end, with Fisons' Road the only named locality. Records here included two hunting on 14th October.


Weasel Mustela nivalis. There were singles along Fisons' Road on 3rd April and 11th August, and at Creyke's on 15th May and 1st June. Also one at an unspecified locality on 13th October.


Mink Mustela vison. Singles ran across Fisons' Road at Green Belt on 26th March, and occurred in Swinefleet Warping Drain on 2nd December.


†Red Deer Cervus elaphus. Reported on 69 dates, especially in April–May and, to a lesser extent, October. There were fewer during January–February/December and none in November. In each of the remaining months there were one–three dates. During the year, the majority of day-counts were of up to five individuals. Combined together, all larger totals were only half as frequent as the smaller ones, but inevitably covered a much greater size range. Fourteen of them varied from six–18 (February/April–May/September–October). Nine exceeded this (January–April/December), the maxima being 65 on 10th February and 47 on 13th December. 

 In January, all records were from  the Will Pits area, of three–five females except a total of 30 after dark on 7th. February records from the same location included notable counts on 9th (16), 10th (65) and 18th (35). There were also four on Goole Moor on 2nd. The few March sightings included 30+ along Blackwater Dike at Will Pits on 29th and again four on Goole Moor next day. The more numerous April reports began with 39 on Goole Moor on 4th, with 18 along Blackwater Dike on 7th. Seven were in fields east of Bank Top on 15th, with Goole Moor counts of eight on 19th and 22 next day. Also on 20th, a possibly blind adult female repeatedly ran between two observers on Goole Moor. Towards the end of the month there were 30 on 24th on Crowle Moor, and 22 again on 27th– 28th on Goole Moor and Goole Fields. During the month there were occasional reports from elsewhere: Will Pits (including five on 12th), Middle Moor Tram (three on 14th), and Creyke's (one on 28th). There were regular reports during May. On 14th, 11 were dispersed over Goole Moor (one), Goole Fields (seven) and fields east of Bank Top (three). Other dates from Goole Moor were 4th (12), 8th (five) and 23rd (two). In addition, there were seven on 11th along Blackwater Dike near Will Pits. The fields east of Bank Top also attracted nine on 2nd, three on 23rd and two next day. There were occasionally one–two at Will Pits, plus five females there on 22nd. On Crowle Moor there were 10 on 10th and two on 15th. Other reports included three males at Pony Bridge Marsh on 8th and 14, mainly in the southern fields, on 17th. During June–September there were records on only nine dates. Three of them were in June (including two at Green Belt on 24th), with three more in September (Goole Moor held 14 on 7th and six on 22nd). Also on Goole Moor, five browsed birch on 24th August. Within June–September, records from Will Pits included five on 2nd July, the only date in that month. Records increased in October as stags became more vocal. One–two were heard roaring, the only named location being Will Pits. Up to three individuals were otherwise reported in the Will Pits area. In fields east of Bank Top there were six on 7th; and five (no details) were counted on 16th. All remaining records were during 7th–29th December. The only location given was the Will Pits area, and no counts exceeded three except 47 along Blackwater Dike there on 13th.   

 As in 2013, a thermal imaging survey was undertaken, during the night of 9th–10th April. This resulted in a count of 189 Reds, lower than the previous year. 


†European Roe Deer Capreolus capreolus. Abundantly reported, in all months, but on only 20th in July. There were day-counts of up to six, but seven–nine on 12 dates during January–May and November–December. Day-counts exceeded this on 8th January (16), 21st March (10), 19th April (11) and 20th April (12). Immature animals were reported on 13th February (three) and 20th July (one). There were kids on 5th June (two) and 18th September (a female with two kids at Will Pits). The thermal imaging survey mapped 66 Roe, again a lower total than in 2013.


Reeves' Muntjac Muntiacus reevesii. There were three records, the first involving one at Pony Bridge Wood on 27th February (SH). One was between Will Pits Scrape and Swinefleet Warping Drain on 8th June (Figure 2) (RW), with another at Will Pits on 25th November (SH). 




†Common Lizard Lacerta vivipara. The earliest, and rather isolated, record was four by Angle Drain

(SE7314) on 24th February. Fairly regularly noted from late March–late June. There were singles in March at Green Belt (SE7116) on 13th, at Pony Bridge Wood (SE7313) on 27th and at a wood-pile near the Viewing Platform (SE7215) on 29th. From 10th–30th April, records were obtained from Green Belt/Fisons' Road, the Southern Canals (SE7115), the Angle Drain boardwalk (SE7414), the Will Pits Scrape area and Natural England's depot at Will Pits. At the latter location there were immature lizards on 15th (one), 16th (three) and 28th/30th (singles), and a maximum count of adults of four on 30th. Generally in April, day-counts occasionally reached four, with five on 28th. Most May records were from the same depot, usually one–two, one of them basking on a tyre on 8th. There were also five immatures there on 6th. Other locations were along Fisons' Road, including Green Belt, where one on 6th brought the day-count to six. Once again, records in JuneJuly centred on the depot, with basking lizards on a wood-pile and tyres. All were singles, except two occasionally and five on 26th June and 22nd July. The only other named locations in June were Green Belt and Fisons' Road, with singles on 24th/26th respectively. On 16th July, singles were at Green Belt and on Snaith & Cowick Moor (SE7118). There were occasional August records at the depot (four on 6th–7th), including basking on a wood-pile and tyres. On 14th, the year's maximum of 10 involved one at Green Belt and the rest at the depot. September sightings were mostly from Will Pits Scrape (on a log) and at the nearby depot (on a wood-pile). Nine on 9th comprised three at the depot and six at Will Pits Scrape. Also at the depot there were six on 11th and four on 21st. Other September counts proved smaller, but included a lizard with a double tail at the depot on 7th. On 16th, three were reported from Green Belt and singles from Will Pits Scrape and Angle Drain (SE7314). There were two October records of singles, on 16th/20th, the latter at Green Belt.     


†Adder or Viper Vipera berus. Evident from mid-February, with all records in that month apparently associated with a hibernaculum at Green Belt (SE7116). Apart from single males on 19th/21st, there were 12 males and three females on 20th, with further high numbers on 24th (12 males), 25th (10 males) and 26th (13 males, plus two nearby along New Mill Drain). A male was at 'Middle Moor' (SE7314) on 25th–26th. Again at Green Belt, March counts reached double figures on 13th (13 males and one female, plus a male and female nearby along New Mill Drain), 19th (11 males and seven females), 26th (11 males and seven females) and 30th (two males and 16 females). Along Swinefleet Warping Drain at Will Pits Scrape (SE7415) there was a male on 4th–5th and a female on 19th. Also on 19th there were three males and two females at Pony Bridge Wood (SE7313) and one male along Pony Bridge Tram (SE7314). In April, Green Belt had three males and four females on 3rd, 11 (including four+ females) on 14th, and then one–two subsequently. Also, a male was along nearby New Mill Drain (SE7116) on 14th. At Creyke's eight were counted on 1st, and on the northern edge of Goole Moor there was a female on 6th (SE7417) and a male on 16th (SE7417). At Canal 1 of the Southern Canals (SE7115), two males and two sloughed skins were found on 14th, on which date a male was at 'Middle Moor' (SE7315) and a female along Mervyn's Tram (SE7315). Also in April, there were occasional sightings along Fisons' Road during the month, one on Crowle Moor on 18th, and another male at Pony Bridge Marsh (SE7314) on 24th. All May records were from Green Belt, on 5th (two), 6th (one female) and 20th (one male). In June, apart from four at Green Belt on 5th, and a male and female along Paraffin Tram (SE7116) on 30th, there were only singles seen. These were along Fisons' Road on 2nd/8th/10th, at the "Colliery access road" (SE7016) on 23rd, and – a female – along Limberlost Tram (SE7213) on 24th. In July, at Green Belt, a female ("swollen with food or young") was watched on 4th, six were "on bog wood" on 9th, and a female was basking "on woodchip pile" on 16th. At Natural England's depot, there were two males and one female ("on plastic pile") on 7th and single males ("on sleepers") on 8th/22nd. Elsewhere in July, one was along Limberlost Tram (SE7213) on 8th, and a female crossed Fisons' Road at Green Belt on 21st. 

 August records commenced with one in SE7314 on 3rd, and a male on Fisons' Road west of Will Pits (SE7415) on 4th. There were two separate females along Fisons' Road on 26th, with singles reported there on several other dates (including SE7216/7415). On 5th/7th a male and female were at the depot ("plastic pile"), with the male alone on 6th. On 13th, a female was near the Viewing Platform (SE7215). On 14th there were five: a female at the depot ("flattened out on wood pile"), single male and female along Swinefleet Warping Drain at Will Pits Scrape (SE7414/7415), and also one of each sex at Green Belt. In September, a male was along Middle Moor Tram (SE7315) on 3rd. The Will Pits Scrape site held singles on 3rd–4th/16th/23rd (probably all males), and there was a male at the nearby depot on 9th. A corpse was found along Middle Moor Tram (SE7315) on 10th. On 16th, there were three males at Green Belt and another male at New Mill Drain nearby, plus a further single along Swinefleet Warping Drain at Will Pits Scrape (SE7415). 

 Beyond September, there were three further records, all at Green Belt. They were a juvenile (bred 2014) on 20th October, and in November single males on 5th/17th (SH, MW). These latter records are the first in that month.


†Grass or Ringed Snake Natrix natrix. During almost the first half of the year there were only two records, both in April. On 16th, one was on the northern edge of Goole Moor (Cawkwell's Strip). Later, on 28th, a Common Buzzard was observed clutching a Grass Snake as it flew over flooded workings north of Fisons' Road (SH, LE). June records commenced with an exceptionally large (female) example along Thorne Waste Drain (at c.SE717147) on 10th. This was followed by other individuals at Middle Moor Tram (SE7315) on 12th, in a garden pond at Creyke's Sidings on 22nd, at the Entrance Bridge at Whaley Balk – again sexed as female because of its large size – on 24th, and at Fillingham's Gate on 26th. On 5th August, two were at Priory Farm. Subsequently, on 7th September one was on a log at Will Pits Scrape, and in October there was one (c.45 cm long) on 5th along Blackwater Dike at Will Pits (SE7416), the latest ever.





†Common Frog Rana temporaria. Two-thirds of all records were in March–April, and mostly involved spawn and calling males. On 19th/21st March, spawn was observed at the eastern end of Goole Moor Tram in a flooded area along a drain (SE752166). On 30th–31st, a male was vocal in

Swinefleet Warping Drain at Will Pits (SE7415). Also on the latter date, another was calling at Will Pits Scrape (SE7415). On the same  day, spawn was seen along Fisons' Road 50 m west of the Blue Bridge site (SE7315). In April, Will Pits Scrape held a vocal male on 2nd (SE7415), with singles calling from the west side of Will Pits, close to Fisons' Road (SE7415), on 2nd/6th/12th/16th. At nearby Swinefleet Warping Drain (SE7415), males were heard on 6th (two) and 12th (one). On the latter date there was also vocalization from the western end of Goole Moor Tram (SE7118). At the Natural England depot there were single froglets on 15th/30th, both "under plastic". May records of singles were obtained on 6th in a drain at Durham's Garden (SE7115), and on 20th at Woodpecker Wood and Will Pits Scrape. There were also records of one (no details) on 28th August, a juvenile on 29th September along the canal towpath at the Canals (SE7215), and one on 7th October along Mervyn's Tram (SE7415). 


†Smooth or Common Newt Triturus vulgaris. On 20th October, a juvenile was found under an abandoned remnant of plastic piling at the Southern Canals (SE7215).




Common Bream Abramis brama. Small examples were caught in the Quay Lane stretch of Swinefleet Warping Drain during the summer months (MS).


Roach Rutilus rutilus. Small examples were caught in the Quay Lane stretch of Swinefleet Warping Drain during the summer months (MS).


Pike Esox lucius. Reportedly taken in Swinefleet Warping Drain during the year.





The published account for 2001 (Lapwing Special Series 16: 59) requires some modification:

 2001. Recorded in late May. On 23rd, two were heard at Pony Bridge Marsh and later they  flew towards Swinefleet. Next day, two 'bugling' adults were present, being apparently over  the 'Middle Moor' area, but views were blocked by trees. Two were overhead on 25th. The  Yorkshire Rare and Scarce Birds Report 2001 reported two again on 27th. Finally, on 28th,  two landed at 'Middle Moor' east of Middle Moor Tram, but could not be found later. 

Additionally, the statements in the Annotated Checklist should be amended as follows:

 Status 2000s. Eleven records in total to 2008, but with many records in 2009. Max. two from  23rd–28th May 2001, 15th September 2002, 8th September 2004 and many dates in 2009.  EDE 17th April 2008. 

 Status 1990s. Singles overhead on 25th October/6th November 1994, with max. two over on

            5th May 1999.

 Status Pre-1990s. One circled on 8th August 1970. Adult present in fields from 26th  October–EDL 11th November 1979.



Adder or Viper. A black Adder was seen regularly behind the sheds at Bank Top (Figure 1). 



Spotted Crake Porzana porzana. The male heard nocturnally on 18th–19th June was in SE7416.


Rabbit. Present in May in SE7318/7417 on 12th, and in SE7516/7517 on 13th.


Brown Hare. Present in SE7218 on 29th April, in SE7517 on 13th May, and in SE7217 on 29th July.

Red Deer. Present in SE7213 on 21st October.


Common Lizard. Present in SE7217 on 29th July. In August, occurred in SE7214 on 18th and in SE7216 on 19th.


Adder. Present in SE7118 on 5th May, in SE7318/7414 on 12th May, in SE7314 on 18th August and in SE7115 on 25th August. Also SE7317 on an unrecorded date in May.


Grass Snake. Present in SE7315 on 11th August.


Common Frog. Present in SE7314 on 18th August, in SE7115 on 25th August and in SE7215 on 30th September.


Common or Smooth Newt. Present in SE7215 on 30th September.


Rabbit. Present in SE7016 on 27th July.


Grey Squirrel. Present in SE7016 on 10th September.


Red Deer. Three were at Will Pits on 6th April, with a female at the Southern Canals on 19th May.


Roe Deer. Three were at Inkle Moor on 18th May and 1st June.


Common Lizard. Present in SE7115 on 13th August.


Adder. A male was along Swinefleet Warping Drain at Will Pits Scrape on 20th April. Present in SE7414 on 12th May, SE7214 on 19th May, SE7115 on 13th August and SE7315 on 15th September.



Caspian Gull. On 9th October, an adult was in a field west of Goole Fields Reservoir with six adult Yellow-legged Gulls and c.80 Lesser Black-backs (TCL). It wore a small metal clip-ring which, from the observer's experience, suggested it might be Polish-ringed. The first record.


Brown Hare. At Creyke's, there were singles on several dates from 2nd May–3rd October.


Water Vole. One was in a drain at Fillingham's Gate on 9th May, and another was along the canal towpath at the Canals on 30th August.


Fox. Singles were at Will Pits Scrape on 1st February and near the Viewing Platform on 30th August.


Red Deer. There were three in a field east of Bank Top on 25th January. On 23rd February, 11 females were in a field south of Limberlost. At Will Pits, there were three on 23rd May and two–three stags roaring on 10th October. 



Eurasian Teal. Breeding likely on Crowle Moor (Lincolnshire Bird Report 2013).


Honey-buzzard. On 9th October, a juvenile flew WNW along the northern edge of Goole Moor (TCL).


Montagu's Harrier. On 17th June, a female flew west over Goole Moor and Goole Fields (TCL). The fifth modern record.


Caspian Gull. There were three September singles on Goole Fields (all TCL): on 3rd (juvenile) and 4th/24th (adults). The second–fourth records. 


Tawny Owl. In the southern part of Crowle Moor on 16th August, Tawny Owls "called constantly" (Thorne & Hatfield Moors Papers 9: 52).


Long-eared Owl. In the southern part of Crowle Moor on 16th August, young birds called "from a nearby plantation" (Thorne & Hatfield Moors Papers 9: 52).


Common Redpoll: The four+ on 5th November were at Will Pits.


A NOTE ON GRASS CARP by Martin Limbert


In seeking to document the fish fauna of Swinefleet Warping Drain (Limbert 2014), local records were uncovered of Grass Carp or Chinese Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella. This alien member of the Cyprinidae is widely distributed in England and Wales, but cannot breed due to the climate and nature of its spawning behaviour. It is thus only maintained by continual stocking (Chare & Musk 2004, Everard 2013). Grass Carp is found in eastern Asia, but has been introduced into parts of Europe and elsewhere. It was originally brought to Britain in the 1960s as farmed stock from Hungary, intended to repress weed growth in enclosed waters. However, it also became popular for ornamental and angling purposes (Chare & Musk 2004, Everard 2013). It is subject to strict legal controls, being included on the Prohibition of Keeping or Release of Live Fish Orders. Thus release to the wild is not permitted without a licence. Feeding adults, which are shaped more like Chub Leuciscus cephalus than true carp Cyprinus/Carassius, are capable of altering ecosystems significantly by their herbivory. Information on the identification of Grass Carp, together with a good photograph, is available in Everard (2013), who also gives maxima of 1.5m in length and 45kg in weight. There are many more photographs online.   

 The distribution map in Davies et al. (2004) does not show any records of Grass Carp from the Thorne Moors area, although there are records indicated from the surrounding region. Limbert (2014) therefore established the occurrence of this fish in the decads SE71 and SE72 in the 1980s. Fisons Angling Club's pond at the former Swinefleet Works (at SE768168) had been dug as a 'fire pool' and became stocked by the Club, including with Grass Carp. In the first half of the 1980s, fish were introduced from there into Swinefleet Warping Drain, perhaps due to drought, and these included Grass Carp. Later in the same decade, one was caught in the Drain (q.v.). It may also be recorded that another Fisons Angling Club water, Decoy Pond (SE725220), was also stocked with Grass Carp to restrict weed growth there. In the 1980s, the pond was re-dug and re-profiled to become two adjoining ponds. At that time, some of these Grass Carp may also have been transferred to Swinefleet Warping Drain.

 The only specific record from Swinefleet Warping Drain is that noted as caught above. Details are given in a letter from Peter Hinks to the writer dated 1st October 2014:

 The specimen was caught by Antony Cowling of Swinefleet. Antony was quite young at the  time and walked back to the village with the fish wrapped in a towel to proudly show it to  friends. John Holt saw it and drove him back to Swinefleet Warping Drain to release it where  it was caught at SE766203. The weight was estimated at 10lbs [4.5kg]. He cannot recall the  year unfortunately but it was Easter and probably late '80s...  


The information on Grass Carp was provided by Paul Adams, the late Eric Henderson and John Holt. Peter Hinks of the Goole & District Natural History Society coordinated the information and supplied it for publication.



Chare, S. & R. Musk (2004) Grass carp. In C. Davies, J. Shelley, P. Harding, I. McLean, R. Gardiner & G. Peirson (compilers and editors) (2004) Freshwater fishes in Britain – the species and their distribution. Harley Books, Colchester.


Davies, C., J. Shelley, P. Harding, I. McLean, R. Gardiner & G. Peirson (compilers and editors) (2004) Freshwater fishes in Britain – the species and their distribution. Harley Books, Colchester.


Everard, M. (2013) Britain's Freshwater Fishes. Princeton University Press, Woodstock.


Limbert, M. (2014) A review of fish in Swinefleet Warping Drain. Thorne Moors Vertebrates Report 2013: 47–51.





Following the initial instalment of results derived from the ringing of Black-headed Gulls Chroicocephalus ridibundus by Philip Bone (Limbert 2014), this second instalment has two unequal components. The first of them lists all ring numbers currently available from other sources. These mostly comprise details supplied by the British Trust for Ornithology. They are augmented by a recovery listed by Hazard (1990) and some original ringing returns and allied data. The second component presents the evidence from several further ringed and controlled Black-headed Gulls.   In summary, the two instalments give the results of both ringing, and the finding of ringed, Black-headed Gulls on Thorne Moors. Juvenile (pullus) Black-headed Gulls have been ringed periodically since 1969, most recently in 2013. This activity included some colour-ringing in 2002. Data from ringed Black-headed Gulls caught elsewhere, found dead on Thorne Moors, have been obtained since 1974. The combined results amount to 52 recoveries and controls, as detailed in the two instalments. Anyone who finds a ringed Black-headed Gull (or indeed any other marked vertebrate) is urged to communicate details for inclusion in future Thorne Moors Vertebrates Reports



Ring number

Ringing age

Finding details 






hit wires



Thorne Moors

South Elmsall, S. Yorks.  (26 km, W, 889 days)







Thorne Moors

Inch Bay, Cork Harbour, Co. Cork, EIRE  (529 km, WSW, 3491 days)







Thorne Moors

near Ireleth, Cumbria (165 km, WNW, 57 days)




taken by mammal



Thorne Moors

Laughton Forest, Gainsborough, Lincs. (20 km, SSE, 2524 days)







Thorne Moors

Denholme, W. Yorks. (69 km, WNW, 59 days)




controlled (trapped +  released)



Thorne Moors

Cobh, Co. Cork, EIRE (530 km, WSW, 

247 days)










Thorne Moors

 -----------, Co. Cork, EIRE (545 km, WSW, 368 days)








Thorne Moors

Shalfleet, Isle of Wight, Hants. (328 km, S, 2576 days)







Thorne Moors

Waterfoot, Rossendale, Lancs. (93 km, W,  134 days)







Thorne Moors

St Helens, Lancs. (119 km, NW, 1296 days)




found dying



Thorne Moors

Grouville Marsh, Grouville, Jersey,

CHANNEL ISLANDS (499 km, S, 989 days)




ring only sent




Thorne Moors

Santa Eugenia, A Coruña, SPAIN (from postmark) 







Thorne Moors

Acre, Haslingden, Lancs. (90 km, W, 106 days)




intentionally taken



Thorne Moors

Daneshill Landfill Site, near Ranskill, Notts. (29 km, SSW, 3187 days)







Thorne Moors

Christendom, Waterford, Co. Kilkenny, EIRE

(441 km, WSW, 2747 days)







Thorne Moors

Bowness–on–Windermere, Cumbria (156 km, NW, 1005 days








Thorne Moors

Davyhulme sewage works, Davyhulme, 

Greater Manchester (99 km, W, 851 days)







Thorne Moors

East Herringthorpe, Rotherham, S. Yorks. (35 km, SW, 5097 days)







Thorne Moors

Crowle, Scunthorpe, Lincs. (9 km, NE,  2218 days)







Upper Barden Resr, Embsay, N. Yorks.

Thorne Moors (82 km, ESE, 673 days)







Fatholme, Burton–upon–Trent, Staffs.

Thorne Moors (110 km, NNE, 1829 days) 








Turku, Southwest Finland, FINLAND

Thorne (1596 km, WSW, 526 days)


The following data have been gleaned from Limbert et al. (1986) and Limbert (1990). Fuller details have not been traced. There are two recoveries and a single control concerning Thorne-ringed pulli for which no ring numbers are available. Each is therefore listed as documented above (Table 1). There is also one recovery from Thorne Moors involving a bird ringed elsewhere, ring number also


Table 1. Pulli of Black-headed Gull Chroicocephalus ridibundus ringed on Thorne Moors (but ring numbers unknown) and recovered (R) or controlled (C) elsewhere.


Date ringed

Date reported



16th June 1985

15th February 1986

Stretton Sugwas, Hereford. 


16th June 1985

15th April 1987

Southfield Resrs, East Cowick, N. Yorks. 


----- June 1986

25th June 1988

"Barden", Skipton, N. Yorks.



unavailable (Table 2). These four gulls represent the remainder of the known ringing data available from Thorne Moors (or, in one case, from very close by). 


Table 2. Pullus of Black-headed Gull Chroicocephalus ridibundus ringed elsewhere (but ring number unknown) and recovered on Thorne Moors.


Date ringed

Ringing location

Date recovered

23rd December 1965

Benington, nr Boston, Lincs.

summer 1974



Jacquie Clarke, of the British Trust for Ornithology, supplied a computer file of relevant data. Difficulties in interpreting the format of this were solved by Keith Heywood, who also produced a readable version for the writer. Further ringing data were supplied directly by Robert Adams and Dr C.A. Howes.



Hazard, D. (1990) Ringing Report 1989. Doncaster Bird Report 1989: 6–12.


Limbert, M. (1990) A Supplement to Thorne Moors: Birds and Man. Nature Conservancy Council, Wakefield.


Limbert, M. (2014) Black-headed Gull ringing: first instalment of results. Thorne Moors Vertebrates Report 2013: 45–47. 


Limbert, M., R.D. Mitchell & R.J. Rhodes (1986) Thorne Moors: Birds and Man. Doncaster & District Ornithological Society, Doncaster.





Modern bird recording began in 1966 on Thorne Moors, a site that was already a known location for European Nightjar Caprimulgus europaeus (hereafter Nightjar). In 1972 systematic counting was undertaken to obtain some idea of the breeding population of Nightjars. There was further interest in 1974–75. In 1976, a coordinated attempt was made by members of the Goole & District Natural History Society. Under the Nature Conservancy Council and successors, further counts were undertaken, to the present day, being latterly by commissioned consultants. The NCC counts began in 1981, with full coverage from 1986. Additionally, an ornithological survey was undertaken in 1990– 91 by the RSPB (East Midlands Region) and the Thorne & Hatfield Moors Conservation Forum. This included a survey of Nightjars in 1990. As a result of all the foregoing, during the 43 year period 1972–2014 there were counts of 'churring' male Nightjars in all but six years, these latter being mainly in the 1970s and mid-1980s. However, the data for 1974–75, 1980 and 1988 were significantly incomplete. This paper is primarily intended to draw attention to all these counts. It provides the figures available, together with sources; where produced, reports may include further information not outlined here e.g. population density, assessment of survey method, extreme dates, collateral species encountered. From 1978, a number of other references to Nightjars have appeared, and these are listed separately. Site lists/checklists are accorded a further section. However, it is emphasized that this paper is a guide to sources, not an analysis of those data. Nevertheless, it was felt that giving the survey total for each year, square-bracketed where significantly incomplete, would be a useful adjunct to the listing of references. 





Map and/or table

Source of count




Limbert et al. (1986)








Grieve [1975]




Grieve [1976]




Grieve [1977]
















Wells [1981]



Wells [1982]




Wells [1983]




Wells [1984]












Limbert (1990)




Limbert (1990)




Limbert (1990)




Limbert (1990)




Bain (1991), Roworth (1991)




Roworth (1992)




Roworth (1993)




Roworth & Roworth (1994)




Roworth & Roworth [1995]




Roworth [1996]




Roworth & Wainwright [1997]




Wainwright [1998]



Hiner (1998)



Hiner (1999)



Hiner (2000)



Hiner (2001)



Wainwright (2002)



Wainwright (2003)



Wilson (2004)



Middleton (2005)



Middleton (2006)



Middleton (2007)



Middleton (2008)



Middleton (2009)



Middleton (2010)



Middleton (2011)



Middleton (2012)



Middleton (2013)



Middleton (2014a, 2014b)


Limbert, M., R.D. Mitchell & R.J. Rhodes (1986) Thorne Moors: Birds and Man. Doncaster & District Ornithological Society, Doncaster. 


Grieve, A. (editor) [1975] Goole and District Natural History Society Annual Bird Report 1974. Goole & District Natural History Society, [Goole].


Grieve, A. (editor) [1976] Goole and District Natural History Society Annual Bird Report 1975. Goole & District Natural History Society, Goole.


Grieve, A. (editor) [1977] Goole and District Natural History Society Annual Bird Report 1976. Goole & District Natural History Society, [Goole].


Wells, T.J. [1981] Thorne Moors Bird Report 1980. Nature Conservancy Council (North West Region), [Blackrod].


Wells, T.J. [1982] Thorne Moors Bird Report 1981. Nature Conservancy Council (North West Region), [Blackrod].


Wells, T.J. [1983] Thorne Moors Report 1982. Nature Conservancy Council (North West Region), [Blackrod].


Wells, T.J. [1984] Thorne Moors Report 1983. Nature Conservancy Council (North West Region), [Blackrod].


Limbert, M. (1990) A Supplement to Thorne Moors: Birds and Man. Nature Conservancy Council, Wakefield.


Bain, C. (1991) Thorne and Hatfield Moors Ornithological Survey 1990/1991. Report produced by the RSPB (East Midlands Region) on behalf of the Thorne & Hatfield Moors Conservation Forum. 


Roworth, P. (1991) Bird Records for Thorne Moors – 1990. [Nature Conservancy Council], n.p.


Roworth, P. (1992) Bird Records for Thorne Moors 1991. [English Nature], n.p.


Roworth, J. (1993) Bird Records for Thorne Moors 1992. [English Nature], n.p.


Roworth, P. & J.  Roworth (1994) Bird Records for Thorne Moors 1993. [English Nature], n.p.


Roworth, P. & J.  Roworth [1995] Thorne Moors Bird Records 1994. English Nature (Humber to Pennines Team), Wakefield.


Roworth, P.C. [1996] Thorne Moors Bird Report 1995. English Nature (Humber to Pennines Team), Wakefield.


Roworth, P.C. & B. Wainwright [1997] Thorne Moors Bird report and schematic list 1996. English Nature (Humber to Pennines Team), Wakefield.


Wainwright, B.P. [1998] Thorne Moors Bird report and systematic list 1997. English Nature (Humber to Pennines Team), Wakefield.


Hiner, S. [1998] Distribution of Churring Male Nightjars on the Humberhead Peatlands 1998: Thorne Moors. Unpublished report by Steve Hiner Photographic, Moorends, to English Nature.


Hiner, S. [1999] Distribution of Churring Male Nightjars on the Humberhead Peatlands 1999: Thorne Moors. Unpublished report by Steve Hiner Photographic, Moorends, to English Nature.


Hiner, S. [2000] Distribution of Churring Male Nightjars on the Humberhead Peatlands 2000: Thorne Moors. Unpublished report by Steve Hiner Photographic, Owston Ferry, to English Nature.

Hiner, S. [2001] Distribution of Churring Male Nightjars on the Humberhead Peatlands 2001: Thorne Moors. Unpublished report by Steve Hiner Photographic, Owston Ferry, to English Nature.


Wainwright, B.P. [2002] Distribution of territorial male European Nightjars Caprimulgus europaeus on The Humberhead Peatlands NNR. Thorne and Crowle Moors 2002. Unpublished report by B.P. Wainwright to English Nature.


Wainwright, B.P. [2003] Distribution of territorial male European Nightjars Caprimulgus europaeus on The Humberhead Peatlands NNR. Thorne and Crowle Moors 2003. Unpublished report by B.P. Wainwright to English Nature.


Wilson, R. (2004) Breeding Nightjar Survey – 2004. Humberhead Peatlands – Thorne, Goole and

Crowle Moors SSSI for English Nature (Humber to Pennines Team). Unpublished report by White Young Green Environmental Limited, Leeds, to English Nature. [Includes earlier data].


Middleton, P. [2005] Breeding Nightjar Survey – 2005 – Humberhead Peatlands NNR, SAC, SSSi, SPA (Thorne, Goole and Crowle Moors). Unpublished report by Middleton Consultancy, Barnsley, to English Nature.


Middleton, P. [2006] Breeding Nightjar Survey – 2006 – Humberhead Peatlands NNR, SAC, SSSi, SPA (Thorne, Goole and Crowle Moors). Unpublished report by Middleton Consultancy, Barnsley, to English Nature.


Middleton, P. [2007] Breeding Nightjar Survey – 2007 – Humberhead Peatlands NNR, SAC, SSSi, SPA (Thorne, Goole and Crowle Moors). Unpublished report by Middleton Consultancy, Barnsley, to Natural England.


Middleton, P. [2008] Breeding Nightjar Survey – 2008 – Humberhead Peatlands NNR, SAC, SSSi, SPA (Thorne, Goole and Crowle Moors). Unpublished report by Middleton Consultancy, Barnsley, to Natural England.


Middleton, P. [2009] Breeding Nightjar Survey – 2009 – Humberhead Peatlands NNR, SAC, SSSi, SPA (Thorne, Goole and Crowle Moors). Unpublished report by Middleton Eco Consultancy, Barnsley, to Natural England.


Middleton, P. [2010] Breeding Nightjar Survey – 2010 – Humberhead Peatlands NNR, SAC, SSSi, SPA (Thorne, Goole and Crowle Moors). Unpublished report by Middleton Eco Consultancy, Barnsley, to Natural England.


Middleton, P. [2011] Breeding Nightjar Survey – 2011 – Humberhead Peatlands NNR, SAC, SSSi, SPA (Thorne, Goole and Crowle Moors). Unpublished report by Middleton Ecological Consultancy, Barnsley, to Natural England.


Middleton, P. [2012] Breeding Nightjar Survey – 2012 – Humberhead Peatlands NNR, SAC, SSSi, SPA (Thorne, Goole and Crowle Moors). Unpublished report by Middleton Ecological Consultancy, Barnsley, to Natural England.


Middleton, P. [2013] Breeding Nightjar Survey – 2013 – Humberhead Peatlands NNR, SAC, SSSi, SPA (Thorne, Goole and Crowle Moors). Unpublished report by Middleton Ecological Consultancy, Barnsley, to Natural England.


Middleton, P. [2014a] Breeding Nightjar Survey – 2014 – Humberhead Peatlands NNR, SAC, SSSi, SPA (Thorne, Goole and Crowle Moors). Unpublished report by Middleton Ecological Consultancy, Barnsley, to Natural England.

Middleton, P. [2014b] Report of Increased Survey Effort Humberhead Peatlands NNR, SAC, SSSi, SPA (Nightjars, Thorne Moors). Unpublished report by Middleton Ecological Consultancy, Barnsley, to Natural England. [2014].



This section presents sources of information derived from the foregoing reports, plus other items on/including the Nightjars of Thorne Moors, the exception being site guides.


Bain, C.G. (1992) The Thorne Birds: An Ornithological Survey of Thorne Moors 1990/91. Lincolnshire Bird Report 1991: 4–8.


Bain. C. (1992) Ornithological Survey of Thorne and Hatfield Moors 1990. Thorne & Hatfield Moors Papers 3: 19–33. 


Berry, P.M. & N. Butt (2002) Climate change impacts on raised peatbogs: a case study of Thorne, Crowle, Goole and Hatfield Moors. English Nature Research Report No. 457. English Nature, Peterborough.


Catley, G.P. (n.d.) Breeding European Nightjars in Lincolnshire/South Humberside. Lincolnshire Bird Report 1992: 6–10.


Howes, C.A. (1978) Notes on the food and feeding mechanisms of a nightjar from Thorne. The Naturalist 103: 28–29.


Middleton, P. (2007) 2007 Nightjar Survey of the Humberhead Peatlands National Nature Reserve. Yorkshire Birding 16: 39–40.


Middleton, P. (2008) The 2008 Nightjar Survey of the Humberhead Peatlands National Nature Reserve. Yorkshire Birding 17: 104–106.


Middleton, P. (2009) Nightjars in Yorkshire in 2009. Yorkshire Birding 18: 99–100.


Oates, F. (2007) Night Bird. Yorkshire Birding 16: 41–42.


Palmer, P. (2002) Movements of foraging nightjars Caprimulgus europaeus at Hatfield Moor and some aspects of their ecology. Unpublished report by Philip Palmer to English Nature. 



Nightjar status on Thorne Moors, as a component of the overall recorded avifauna, is summarised as below.


Limbert, M., R.D. Mitchell & R.J. Rhodes (1986) Thorne Moors: Birds and Man. Doncaster & District Ornithological Society, Doncaster.


Limbert, M. (1990) A Supplement to Thorne Moors: Birds and Man. Nature Conservancy Council, Wakefield.


Wainwright, B.P. (2010) The Birds of Thorne Moors. An Annotated Checklist. THMCF Technical Report No. 19. Thorne & Hatfield Moors Conservation Forum, Thorne.




Anon. (1854) Fire on Thorne Moors. Doncaster Chronicle and Farmers' Journal, 13th October. ["...cover for hares and pheasants has been entirely destroyed"].

Anon. (1862) The Cuckoo. Doncaster, Nottingham, and Lincoln Gazette, 2nd May. ["...heard especially...the Moor-edges"].


Anon. (1927) The Nightingale? Doncaster Gazette, 10th June. [Crepuscular singer at Thorne "Delph" attracting listeners was believed to be this species. All Thorne district reports are collated].


Anon. (1929) Badger? Doncaster Gazette, 25th October. [At New Zealand]. [Previously erroneously listed under 1930].


Anon. (1931) Pet Fox Dead. Doncaster Gazette, 28th August. [From Thorne Moors when "very young"].


Ballance, D.K. (2009) Birds in Counties. An Ornithological Bibliography for the Counties of England, Wales & Scotland, the Isle of Man & the Channel Islands. Second Supplement. Errata, Corrigenda et Addenda and a new section on Ireland. Privately published, Minehead.


Ballance, D.K. (2015) Birds in Counties. An Ornithological Bibliography for the Counties of England, Wales & Scotland, the Isle of Man, the Channel Islands, Northern Ireland & the Republic of Ireland. Third Supplement. Errata, Corrigenda et Addenda & Index to Journals and Authors. Privately published, Minehead. [Ballance's Birds in Counties and the three Supplements provide a full listing of Thorne Moors bird recording].


[Fox, L.] [2007] Thorne & Hatfield Moors Oral History Project. No publisher, no place.


Fox, L. [2010] South Yorkshire Women in Industry. A study of the last 100 years. South Yorkshire Women's Development Trust, Rotherham. 

[The two foregoing references note that women employed as seasonal peat workers on Thorne Moors took young children with them. One mother (and presumably others) made a play-pen out of peat turves, to contain the children and to prevent them coming across Adders].


Heppenstall, J. (1843) Note on Woodcock and Snipes. The Zoologist 1 (First Series): 15.


Heppenstall, J. (1843) Note on the occurrence of Hawks near Sheffield. The Zoologist 1 (First Series): 247–248. [Montagu's Harrier Circus pygargus breeds on Thorne Moors].


[Limbert, M.] (2016) Species monitoring. Thorne Moors Vertebrates Report 2014: 3–4. [Black Adders].


Limbert, M. (2016) A note on Grass Carp. Thorne Moors Vertebrates Report 2014: 34.


Limbert, M. (2016) Common Cranes 2009–14. Thorne Moors Vertebrates Report 2014: 35–52.


Limbert, M. (2016) Black-headed Gull ringing: second instalment of results. Thorne Moors Vertebrates Report 2014: 52–54.


Limbert, M. (2016) Information sources on European Nightjar. Thorne Moors Vertebrates Report 2014: 54–59.


Middleton, P. [2014] Report of Increased Survey Effort Humberhead Peatlands NNR, SAC, SSSi, SPA (Nightjars, Thorne Moors). Unpublished report by Middleton Ecological Consultancy, Barnsley, to Natural England. [2014].


Middleton, P. [2015] Breeding Nightjar Survey – 2015 – Humberhead Peatlands NNR, SAC, SSSi, SPA (Thorne, Goole and Crowle Moors). Unpublished report by Middleton Ecological Consultancy, Barnsley, to Natural England.


Wainwright, B.P. [2013] Humberhead Peatlands: Thorne Moors Crane Diary 2013. Unpublished report to Natural England.


Wainwright, B.P. [2014] Humberhead Peatlands: Thorne Moors Crane Warden Diary 2014. Unpublished report to Natural England.




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