Compiled by Martin Limbert, Bryan P. Wainwright and Steve Hiner 2017



A summary of desktop reviews

Species monitoring

Recording in 2015





Additions and corrections 2011–14

The changing status of Marsh Harrier: a brief commentary by Martin Limbert

New or additional literature sources

List of observers and acknowledgements

1. Thorne Moors bird recording: Golden Jubilee. There has been continuous bird recording on Thorne Moors since 1966, which therefore represents 50 years of activity. During that time there have been three published summaries of the locality's birds (Limbert et al. 1986, Limbert 1990, Wainwright 2010), plus annual reports for 1980–83 and 1990–2015. Such sustained bird recording deserves to be noted. It may be added that modern recording of other vertebrates also commenced in 1966. As an example of the changes documented during that half century, a short outline is published here of the transformed fortune of Marsh Harrier.

Limbert, M. (1990) A Supplement to Thorne Moors: Birds and Man. Nature Conservancy Council, Wakefield.

Limbert, M., R.D. Mitchell & R.J. Rhodes (1986) Thorne Moors: Birds and Man. Doncaster & District Ornithological Society, Doncaster. Wainwright, B.P. (2010) The Birds of Thorne Moors. An Annotated Checklist. THMCF Technical Report No. 19. Reprinted 2010, 2015.

2. Scope of the report. The Thorne Moors Vertebrates Report 2015 completes the process of making Thorne Moors vertebrates recording as up-to-date as possible to the end of 2015. The contents at the rear of the report include a brief commentary on the changing status of Marsh Harrier. On the negative side, once again bird ringing data were not available. As with the previous Thorne Moors Vertebrates Reports, a limited number of paper copies (A4 booklet style) of the present Report have been produced. In the paper copies all photographs are reproduced in monochrome.

3. Recording area. The Thorne Moors recording area is deliberately interpreted somewhat loosely. It comprises the whole of the peatland, contiguous unfarmed areas, the Thorne Colliery curtilage, and peripheral farmland and drains. The limit to the north is defined as the line of the old Axholme Joint Railway. Otherwise, a field width or so is a practical rule-of-thumb.

4. Place-names. In broad terms, the name Thorne Moors is used to embrace both the peatland and other areas under study. The surviving peat is divided by parish limits, the parish names being Thorne Waste, Snaith & Cowick Moor, Rawcliffe Moor, Goole Moor and Crowle Moor. Thorne Waste (except now the Yorkshire Triangle) lies in South Yorkshire. The other parishes lie in East Yorkshire, except Crowle Moor and the Yorkshire Triangle, which are in North Lincolnshire. That part of Goole Moor situated north of Rawcliffe Moor is designated as 'Northern Goole Moor' for recording purposes. The name Top House Farm generally refers to that part of the farm that extends from the Moors to the Thorne–Goole railway (but see, for example, Ring Ouzel and Thrush Nightingale).

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Within the parish framework, numerous place-names are employed for vertebrates recording. All the names then in use were included on the place-names map issued with the Thorne Moors Vertebrates Report 2005. Subsequently, work on updating this map was underway, but it was aborted during 2015 as the Thorne & Hatfield Moors Conservation Forum published its Thorne Moors Compartment Map. This was a companion to the earlier Hatfield Moors Compartment Map. The Thorne Compartment Map goes some way to presenting the place-names used in vertebrates recording. It will inevitably be used as the source for place-names on and around Thorne Moors, despite some inadequacies, inaccuracies and inconsistencies. The subject of place-names has not been addressed in this report, and still remains one for future discussion and eventual development.

5. Current sources of nomenclature and species sequence • The British Birds list of Western Palearctic Birds, British Birds Ltd. See (accessed 14th May 2016) • S. Harris & D.W. Yalden (editors) (2008) Mammals of the British Isles: Handbook, 4th edition. The Mammal Society, Southampton • H.R. Arnold (1995) Atlas of amphibians and reptiles in Britain. Institute of Terrestrial Ecology research publication No. 10. HMSO, London • C.E. Davies et al. (compilers and editors) (2004) Freshwater fishes in Britain the species and their distribution. Harley Books, Colchester • G.T.D. Wilmore, J. Lunn and J.S. Rodwell (2011) The South Yorkshire Plant Atlas. Yorkshire Naturalists’ Union and Yorkshire & the Humber Ecological Data Trust, no place

6. Descriptions and visual evidence of birds. For nationally rare taxa, evidence should be made available in accordance with the requirements of the British Birds Rarities Committee. At county level, material should be prepared in compliance with the lists issued by the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union (Birds Section Adjudication Panel) or the Lincolnshire Bird Club (Lincolnshire Bird Records Committee), as appropriate. Advice can be made available upon request.

7. Rare breeding birds. In addition to Natural England, records of rare breeding birds are made available to the county organizations, and via them to the Rare Breeding Birds Panel. Records may also be accessed by bona fide specialist study groups.

8. Daily bird counts and WeBS counts. In the species accounts that follow, there may be references to daily counts, counts, totals etc. It is emphasized that these are not full site counts, but counts made by an individual observer or group on a particular date. It is possible to have more than one count on a single date, when the highest will be used if they cannot be coordinated or united. The recording area is very large, and site totals are difficult to establish with certainty, except for the scarcer species. However, for some wetland birds, it is possible to visit the most likely places to count them, thus attaining a relatively accurate Moors total. It is acknowledged that such reported daily counts may sometimes be regarded as vague. However, they are broadly comparable over a period of years. During 2012, more structured monitoring of wetland birds was commenced, and this has continued. Under Natural England's survey programme for the NNR, year round counts of wetland birds on Thorne Moors are undertaken as part of the national Wetland Bird Survey (WeBS).* *WeBS is a partnership between the BTO, the RSPB and the JNCC, in association with the Wildfowl and Wetlands Trust.

9. Contacts. Records of all vertebrates can be submitted via 'Contact us' on the website Alternatively, records can be emailed to Bryan Wainwright This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. or posted to him at: Silverthorn, St Michael's Drive, Thorne, Doncaster, DN8 5QF.


1. During the years 2003–10, a review was undertaken of all vertebrate classes on Thorne Moors. This was published by the Thorne & Hatfield Moors Conservation Forum as four numbers of its Technical Reports. They are:

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 The Birds of Thorne Moors. A Guide to Literature Sources by M. Limbert & P.C. Roworth. THMCF Technical Report No. 18. Published 2009, reprinted 2010.
 The Birds of Thorne Moors. An Annotated Checklist by B.P. Wainwright. THMCF Technical Report No. 19. Published 2010, reprinted 2010, 2015.
 The Mammals of Thorne Moors by M. Limbert. THMCF Technical Report No. 15. First edition published 2005; 'Badger Meles meles' issued as an unpublished supplement with restricted availability. Second edition 2008.
 The Fish and Herptiles of Thorne Moors by M. Limbert, S. Hiner & B.P. Wainwright. THMCF Technical Report No. 13. First edition published 2004, reprinted (without permission) 2005. Second edition 2008.

2. Ever since 2012, an attempt has been made to catch up with backlogs of records and monitoring, and to undertake a number of specific reviews. These latter are now completed, as follows:
 The establishment of Black-necked Grebe (Thorne Moors Vertebrates Report 2013: 36–40)
 Marsh Harriers 1990–2003 (Thorne Moors Vertebrates Report 2013: 40–45)
 Common Cranes on Thorne Moors 1970–2008 (Lapwing Special Series 16: 59)
 Common Cranes 2009–14 (Thorne Moors Vertebrates Report 2014: 35–52)
 Black-headed Gull ringing: first instalment of results (Thorne Moors Vertebrates Report 2013: 45–47)
 Black-headed Gull ringing: second instalment of results (Thorne Moors Vertebrates Report 2014: 52–54)
 Information sources on European Nightjar (Thorne Moors Vertebrates Report 2014: 54–58)
 The Deer of Thorne Moors: A Working Paper (privately published)
 A review of fish in Swinefleet Warping Drain (Thorne Moors Vertebrates Report 2013: 47– 51)
 A note on Grass Carp (Thorne Moors Vertebrates Report 2014: 34)

3. The following further reviews have also been undertaken:
 'The Deer of the Thorne Moors Area'. Based on the Working Paper (above), this will be published as the first number of the relaunched Lapwing journal  A detailed historical review entitled 'The Black Grouse of the Yorkshire–Lincolnshire Border, with References to Red Grouse, Little Bustard and Pallas's Sandgrouse'. The review is nearing completion, and features the area from Goole south to Bawtry and, across the River Trent, from Scunthorpe south towards Gainsborough. Thorne Moors (together with Hatfield Moors and the Scunthorpe area) had both native and introduced Black Grouse. The resultant paper will appear in the relaunched Lapwing journal

4. In addition, throughout the period involved, annual reports continued, and were produced for each year 2004–15.


Natural England. In general, species monitoring focuses on the occurrence and encouragement of rare or declining breeding species, but may involve others. Monitoring is also a tool in assessing

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habitat management. To assist with this, observers are requested to provide FULL DETAILS OF EVERY RECORD (location, age, sex, etc., as appropriate) of the currently monitored species. They are marked with a dagger (†) in the systematic lists. These are 'official', as they are targeted by Natural England, being the subject of contract or staff surveys/monitoring: EUROPEAN NIGHTJAR, HERPTILES.

Humberhead Levels Deer Management Group. This group was formed in 2014. Its boundaries are formed by the River Ouse in the north, the River Trent in the east, the Stainforth & Keadby Canal in the south, and the River Don/Dutch River in the west/north-west. Thorne Moors lies at the district's cervid heart, where the Group monitors all species of DEER (†).


There were 12,190 records from the Thorne Moors blog, and others from more traditional sources. A total of 172 species of bird was reliably recorded, together with an additional race, White Wagtail. Further, there was one record of released Green Pheasant. A report of Snow Bunting is squarebracketed and is thus not included in the grand total. Individuals are generally aged/sexed as per the wording supplied, although it is recognized that this will lead to some overlap of records. Three new species were added to the list: American Golden Plover, Rose-ringed Parakeet and Thrush Nightingale. The Moors list currently stands at 236 species (+ exclusions). There were, however, many records of species hitherto noted less than 10 times: White-fronted Goose (eighth record), Barnacle Goose (seventh), Egyptian Goose (fourth), Red-crested Pochard (fourth), Common Scoter (fourth–fifth), Eurasian Bittern (fifth), Great White Egret (fifth–sixth), Montagu's Harrier (eighth modern), Bar-tailed Godwit (ninth), Pectoral Sandpiper (second), Wryneck (fifth), Red-backed Shrike (seventh), Cetti's Warbler (second), Wood Warbler (fifth), Pied Flycatcher (fifth modern), Black Redstart (sixth) and Water Pipit (second). Other notable species occurred e.g. Garganey, Common Quail, Little Egret, Honey-buzzard, Red Kite, Osprey, Wood Sandpiper, Black Tern, Mediterranean Gull, Caspian Gull, Yellow-legged Gull, Short-eared Owl, Bearded Tit, Ring Ouzel, Twite, Common Redpoll and Common Crossbill. For some of these, like Red Kite, Wood Sandpiper, Yellow-legged Gull and Ring Ouzel, it was a relatively good year. Confirmed or suspected nesting was noted for several significant species e.g. Shoveler, Marsh Harrier, Common Crane, Ringed Plover, Common Redshank, Long-eared Owl, Common Kestrel, Woodlark and European Stonechat. There was the first breeding evidence for Common Shelduck; and a Eurasian Bittern 'boomed' in spring. The European Nightjar population was lower, although some difficult surveying conditions played a part in this. Black-headed Gulls were a failure; and the Grasshopper Warbler population was described as having "crashed". Yet the presence of some breeding species was relatively encouraging e.g. Red-legged Partridge (22 dates), Grey Partridge (20 dates, and breeding proved), Turtle Dove (32 dates) and Willow Tit (regular). Conversely, there was no proof that Black-necked Grebe had bred, and Green Woodpecker posted a mere 14 dates. There were some good, even record, counts. No less than 5000+ Pink-footed Geese occurred on 3rd January. Amongst the ducks, there were 200+ Eurasian Wigeon on 28th January, 89 Gadwall on 26th March, c.800 Eurasian Teal on 9th November and 25 Tufted Ducks on 16th February. Sixteen+ Common Buzzards were estimated on 26th April, and spring numbers of Hobbies peaked at 18. Counts of gulls featured c.100 Common Gulls on two dates and 32 Yellow-legged Gulls on 14th September. Farmland totals of Rooks reached c.500 on 1st October. Amongst the hirundines, there were exceptional numbers on 8th September (c.1500 Barn Swallows and c.300 House Martins). Robins were relatively numerous in September–October (maximum 52 on 29th September), and Eurasian Stonechats reached 21 on 15th September. On 1st October, there were c.60 Reed Buntings. Some extreme or unusual dates featured during the year. A Whooper Swan on 23rd April was the latest ever in spring. There was a Common Goldeneye on 2nd May and a Goosander on 2nd/5th May. However, some of the dates involved earliest or joint-earliest records. Thus there was a Little Ringed Plover on 25th March and a Wood Sandpiper on 22nd April. The earliest European Nightjar date was 3rd May, and two exceptional Hobbies were seen on 9th April. The earliest ever House Martin appeared on 11th April. A Grey Wagtail on 21st June was only the third in that month, and two White Wagtails on 13th September were the first to be identified in autumn. There were Common Chiffchaffs in November and December.

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In 2011, a note appeared in British Birds (104: 273–274) entitled 'Spring feeding assemblies of the Hobby in Britain'. In it, a table gave peak counts of pre-breeding gatherings of Hobby "for a selection of the larger sites" in Britain. The years covered were 2001–10, and the peaks varied from one to 84. Thorne Moors was not included, but as can be seen from Table 1, the relevant totals 2001– 14 were sometimes notable, especially for a relatively northern location. This was especially so in 2008, 2010 and 2012–14, when counts at Thorne included the highest ever reported in Yorkshire. During 2015, this significance continued, with spring counts of 10–14 and totals in excess of this on two dates in May.

Year 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 Counts 6 4 5 4 3 3 4 10+ 4 20+ 6 14+ 13 15+

Table 1. Peak counts of pre-breeding Hobbies Falco subbuteo on Thorne Moors 2001–14. The most unexpected find of the year was undoubtedly a Thrush Nightingale (giving the area its third Luscinia species). The bird was ringed in August at Top House Farm. Of relevance, in the report on rare birds in Britain in 2016, it was noted (British Birds 110: 609): Thrush Nightingale is a common breeding bird in southern Sweden and is expanding westwards into southern Norway, so 'Sprosser' may be an increasingly realistic target for rarity finders across eastern Britain. Inland birders and ringers should also bear in mind that birds have been found in mist-nets at Portland (Dorset), Salisbury Plain (Wiltshire) and Thorne Moors (Yorkshire) in recent years, so the basic differences in wing formulae between the two nightingale species are worth reiterating, since the length of the short outermost primary (short in Sprosser) can sometimes be apparent in photographs. During the year, sixteen species of mammal were reported, excluding sight records of bats. Notable were Hedgehog, Mink and Water Vole, the latter unfortunately falling prey to Fox, Stoat, Marsh Harrier and Common Buzzard. Of 29 Mustela records, almost all were of Stoat, with two of Mink and only three of Weasel. Surveys of deer organized by the Deer Initiative in March peaked at 165 Red Deer (thermal imaging) and 96 European Roe Deer (visual). In total, Red Deer were reported on 81 dates (75+ in 2013 and 69 in 2014). Other encounters with deer included a further record of Reeves' Muntjac, this time a railway casualty (Figure 1). As in other recent years, Badgers were recorded, but in view of persecution, no sett details are published here.

Figure 1. Reeves' Muntjac Muntiacus reevesi at Creyke's Crossing on 19th March 2015. This was the eleventh acceptable record from the Thorne Moors area. Photograph © B.P. Wainwright.

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There were encouraging numbers of reptile records, involving all three species. Adder details included 26 on 6th April, and there was a report during the year from the area of the disused Swinefleet Works. The two located species of amphibian, Common Frog and Smooth Newt, included breeding evidence, and both species of fish reported, Common Bream and Roach, were taken from Swinefleet Warping Drain. BIRDS

Mute Swan Cygnus olor. Beyond April/October, reports were restricted to three dates: 16th January (one north), 27th January (three overhead) and 9th June (one north-east over Red House Farm). There were records from six dates in April, commencing with two east on 4th, then four overhead and on flooded workings on 7th, and three on Goole Moor on 10th. On 22nd, three were seen both grounded (including at Green Belt floods) and overhead. Next day, a single appeared on Goole Fields Reservoir and over Will Pits Scrape, and what may have been the same bird was again over Will Pits Scrape on 24th. In October, there were records on 3rd (seven overhead), 11th (reports of one overhead, succeeded by four flying to roost at Will Pits Scrape), 13th (four immatures overhead) and 18th (two overhead).

Whooper Swan Cygnus cygnus. Frequently recorded in January, often involving five in fields north of Crowle Moor, but only one on 31st January–1st February. Two additional individuals were at flooded workings on 5th January. Transient birds were noted during 15th–25th March, usually at flooded workings. The dates were 15th (28), 20th (33+), 21st (22), 24th (14) and 25th (two). Sightings in April began with two adults and an immature down on 6th, then two south over Goole Moor next day and three that landed on 10th. An adult at flooded workings on 23rd April constitutes the latest ever spring record. After two adults north on 13th October, the next reports were of four (two adults and two juveniles) about during 3rd–5th November. On 7th, 15 roosted at flooded workings, and in the same month groups flew east on 20th (eight) and 23rd (21). The two December dates were 11th (11 overhead) and 13th (18 landed at flooded workings, departing to the east later).

Pink-footed Goose Anser brachyrhynchus. In the first three months there were sightings on 12 dates, the majority in January. Those localized involved the Moors and Goole Fields. The January dates were 3rd (a record 5000+ over Goole Fields), 5th (three), 12th (c.1400 in three skeins), 16th (200 west), 17th (one), 18th (three), 19th (c.100) and 27th (c.160). On 4th February c.200 passed overhead from the west, and there were eight on 12th. The only March record involved a lone bird with Greylags on Goole Fields on 25th/28th. The species returned in September. There were six on Goole Fields on 20th, c.140 flushed from flooded workings on 25th, 81 east on 26th and 15 on 29th. There were numerous October reports, with both flooded workings and Goole Fields referred to. The numbers included both roosting and transient geese. Many of the totals were in three figures, with maxima exceeding c.500 on nine dates, and beyond c.1000 on six: c.3200 on 11th, c.1370 on 19th, c.1340 on 25th, c.1750 on 26th, c.3000 on 27th and c.2000 on 30th. Similar records in November involved occasional numbers up to c.780, but better on four occasions: 5th (c.1500), 9th (c.2350), 10th (c.1440) and 16th (c.2580). The geese on 9th/16th roosted on the Moors. Counts in December occasionally exceeded c.220, reaching c.470 on 29th, c.600 north on 28th, c.900 on 29th and c.960 on 16th. The highest December counts were c.1480 on 11th and c.2070 on 21st, these latter leaving a roost on Goole Moor.

White-fronted Goose Anser albifrons. Two adults of the nominate race were with Pink-feet on 26th October. The eighth record.

Greylag Goose Anser anser. In the months to April, there were numerous reports of up to 41, even c.70. The highest involved c.150 on 19th January, 112 on 4th February, 92 on 14th February, 84 on 8th March and 89 on 19th April. In April, a pair had young at Will Pits Scrape on 20th (five young) and 22nd (four surviving). Reported throughout May, and exceeded 32 on 12th, when 36 were seen. There were only three June dates. On 3rd, 14 (including young) were at Crowle North Marsh. Next day, 39 were seen (no location), as were two on 14th. The eight July dates produced three–20 birds, except late in the month when counts on Goole Fields were 256 on 29th and 306 on 30th. Those on

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29th roosted on Goole Moor. August figures occasionally reached 38, but with c.130 on 1st, c.200 on 6th, 325 on 16th, perhaps as many as c.500 on 26th, but only c.50 on 29th and 53 on 30th. Counts then rose in September, beginning with c.300 on 4th–5th. Three-figure totals were routine, peaking at c.480 on 8th/22nd, c.500 on 10th/17th, and 638 on 11th. Overall, counts were lower in October, but still went beyond 92 on occasion, with five counts of c.100–137, but c.500 on 31st. November reports were few, in single figures save c.50 on 7th and c.110 on 20th. More frequent in December, with counts of up to 96 eclipsed by 112 on 4th, 147 on 14th and c.100 on 29th/31st.

Canada Goose Branta canadensis. After a single bird on 12th/14th February, there were reports on four dates in March. These were 12th (eight) and 16th–17th/19th (two). More frequent in April, with one–two on ten dates, 19 on 6th and three on 26th. Reports in May began with seven on 2nd, but then with only two on 3rd, singles on 6th/14th and three on 29th. However, in addition, an adult had three unfledged young at 'Thousand Acre floods' on 25th. The only other specified locations during February–May were Will Pits Scrape and the 'Paraffin' area, the latter just on 3rd May. With none in June, the next were three on 2nd July. Later in that month there were sightings on 21st (13 west), 29th (15) and 30th (one). After two on 10th August, counts rose, with c.100 on 18th and c.140 on 20th, dropping to c.80 on 27th and 22 on 29th. Seen virtually daily during 31st August–15th September, exceeding eight on 4th (35), 5th (107), 6th (132), 7th (c.120), 9th (35) and 11th (28). There were also 45 on 22nd September. With records of singles in October (plus three on 22nd), there were also 18 on 11th and c.90 on 30th, the latter at Will Pits Scrape. One–two also appeared occasionally during 20th November–27th December, exceeded by 14 on 11th December.

Barnacle Goose Branta leucopsis. On 10th/16th November, two were seen with Pink-feet, roosting on the Moors and then flighting to Goole Fields (TCL). The seventh record.

Egyptian Goose Alopochen aegyptiaca. On 6th April, a pair seen in flight were later at Crowle North Marsh (RJS, BPW, BS). The fourth record.

Common Shelduck Tadorna tadorna. Until April, only logged on three dates: 4th January (two at Will Pits Scrape), 28th January (one west) and 11th February (two). Frequently reported during 2nd April–21st June, usually one–four, but six west on 16th April, eight on 26th April, five on 3rd May and six east on 17th June. There were only six later dates during the year, but they included the first ever evidence of breeding. This involved a pair with four unfledged young at Crowle North Marsh on 25th/30th June (BPW). There was also a fledged juvenile at this location on 2nd August (BPW). The remaining records concerned two on 14th/20th July and 2nd October, the latter at 'Thousand Acre floods'.

Eurasian Wigeon Anas penelope. After occasional reports of one–three in the first half of January, higher counts occurred on 22nd (123) and 28th (a notable 200+ at 'Woodside floods'). There were also two on 12th February and four on 20th March. Subsequently noted in September on 13th (one), 24th (four) and 29th (two). There were two October dates, 10th (one) and 27th (20), followed in November by two on 3rd/9th and one on 12th. After a further single on 14th December, five were seen on 20th and 15 on 27th. From September, the only location named was Will Pits Scrape.

Gadwall Anas strepera. Counts in January exceeded single figures on ten dates, with the highest numbers on 5th (23), 12th (28), 13th (36), 16th (34), 17th (32) and 31st (29). February figures reached 25 on 17th, 33 on 19th, c.70 on 22nd and 28 on 27th. Virtually all reports with locality data from January–February involved Will Pits Scrape. During March–April, records were also submitted from several flooded areas and the Paraffin Cuttings. There were numerous totals in double figures during March–early April, occasionally of 34–44, plus March peaks of 63 on 4th, 47 on 8th, 49 on 12th and a record 89 on 26th. From 5th April–20th June, most counts were in single figures, the exceptions being 12 on 19th April, 19 on 24th April, 16 on 22nd May, with 13 next day. The main locality was Will Pits Scrape. The relatively few records in July–August reached 12 on 17th July (Green Belt Scrape) and 11 on 17th August. There were more reports in September, maximum 17 at Will Pits Scrape on 10th. Again fewer totals in October–November, but there were seven counts of 10–17, and 20 on 30th

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October. The more numerous figures in December sometimes reached 22, bettered by c.30 on 9th, 32 on 23rd, 29 on 26th and 36 on 29th.

Eurasian Teal Anas crecca. Monthly maxima were c.190, c.160, c.200, 177, 12, 30, 102, c.190, 400+, 765, c.800, 189. No August counts exceeded c.60 until c.190 on 31st. High counts were then obtained on several September dates, the most noteworthy being 384 on 11th and 400+ on 24th, with others of c.300–c.360. October totals were similarly high, with peaks on 4th/8th (c.500), 10th (765), 11th (c.650), 22nd (c.600) and 30th–31st (c.400). This presence continued to mid-November, with numbers of up to c.240, and a record c.800 on 9th and c.700 on 12th. From then until the year-end, there were only four totals in excess of c.100, all in December, the highest being 189 on 19th. Breeding evidence comprised broods on Goole Moor (two), on the northern edge of Will Pits and at Will Pits Scrape. A Eurasian Teal was preyed upon by a male Marsh Harrier on 10th September.

Mallard Anas platyrhynchos. Monthly maxima were 439, c.300, 118, 103, 28, 34, c.80, c.500, c.250, c.240, c.300, c.550. During mid-February–mid-August, totals only infrequently rose above c.50, the maxima being 118 on 8th March, 103 on 19th April and c.80 on 29th July. The figures became more consistently higher from 17th August, with four three-figure counts, including c.400 on 23rd and c.500 on 26th. Counts in September to 11th exceeded c.100 on occasion, maximum c.250 on 5th. For the rest of the month the figures were lower but occasionally made c.70, and again c.250 on 24th. During October–December the counts were erratic, but sometimes scaled 200 or more. They comprised c.300 on 12th November and 9th December, with a spike to c.550 on 29th December, the peak of the year. Breeding was proved, and included a duckling predated by a male Marsh Harrier on 12th June.

Pintail Anas acuta. Reported on six dates, two of them in spring: a pair on 5th April and a male on 10th May. Subsequently, a pair appeared on 11th September, with two on 9th November, a lone male on 6th December and two males on 21st of that month.

Garganey Anas querquedula. Only present in April. A male was noted on 8th/11th/13th–16th/19th, centred on Crowle North Marsh (IMcD, MEO, GF et al.). Additionally, on 17th, a female flew south with 20 Eurasian Teal (TCL).

Shoveler Anas clypeata. There were frequent single-figure counts during January–February, plus 10 on 4th January. Noted on many dates in March, with counts exceeding 20 on six dates, maximum 28 on 3rd. Regular in April–May, with April numbers fluctuating but attaining 31 on 1st, 41 on 6th and 62 on 19th, then 53 on 22nd and 37 on 24th. The May maximum was 19 on 23rd. There were fewer reports during June–August, with totals occasionally up to 12, plus August peaks of 54 on 23rd and c.70 on 25th. Noted regularly September–December, with some totals reaching 20. There were c.40 on 25th September, with the highest count in October being 24 on 31st. Subsequent maxima were c.30 on 5th/12th November and 23rd/29th/31st December. A pair had 10 young on 21st May, location not reported.

Red-crested Pochard Netta rufina. A male was at Will Pits Scrape on 3rd November (MW). The fourth record.

Common Pochard Aythya ferina. Another good year. Occurred on 12 dates in January–February, all those in January apparently involving a single female at Will Pits Scrape. The February reports concerned a male at Will Pits Scrape, plus three on 17th/25th and four on 22nd, but with no further details of these higher totals. The ten March dates comprised one–four birds, all those specified being males except a female on 17th. Where given, the locations were Will Pits Scrape and Crowle North Marsh. There was a similar presence in April. After four on 1st, there were two males and one female on 5th, with subsequent reports of one–two males and a pair on 7th/10th. The pair was at Crowle North Marsh; the males were at Crowle North Marsh, Will Pits Scrape and on flooded workings. There were then few dates during May–November: 9th May (a male at Will Pits Scrape), 2nd July

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(two), 27th October (three) and 5th November (two). These were followed by single males at Will Pits Scrape on 23rd/29th December.

Tufted Duck Aythya fuligula. There were numerous records during January–March. They yielded counts peaking at 10 in January. Also up to 15 in February, but with an unprecedented 25 (17 males) at Will Pits Scrape on 16th. Counts of 10–19 in March were exceeded on 10th (21) and 12th (20). There were many records in April, of 13–14 occasionally and 16 on 17th/22nd. Apart from May counts of 10 on 2nd and 14 on 10th, others in that month were in single figures. Occasionally seen in April–May at Goole Fields Reservoir. Reported through June–October with single-figure counts (often just one–three), the exceptions being 11 on 4th June and 10 on 27th October. Seen on only four dates in November, maxima being seven on 5th and four on 28th. However, there were December records from 15 dates, but amounted to only single figures until the end of the month. Then there were 17 on 27th and 13 on 31st. During the year, most reports were from Will Pits Scrape, where breeding evidence was noted 20th July–2nd August, including six young on 29th July. Possibly two pairs were involved in these records.

Common Scoter Melanitta nigra. A female was at flooded workings on 19th March (BPW, SH, GF et al.). Also, a juvenile appeared at Will Pits Scrape on 11th October (BPW, MW). The fourth and fifth records.

Common Goldeneye Bucephala clangula. The only report from the early part of the year involved a female at Will Pits Scrape on 2nd May, only the second ever in May (the first was on 5th in 1995). Other females were at Will Pits Scrape on 20th November (one), 21st December (two) and 22nd/29th December (singles).

Goosander Mergus merganser. Regular during January–March, with counts in the former month reaching 18 (nine males) on 27th. Maxima increased somewhat in February, with peaks of 24 (12 males) on 14th–15th, 22 (12 males) on 21st, 25 (13 males) on 22nd and 23 (11 males) on 27th. Numbers lowered in March, but reached 20 (11 males) on 3rd, but with no more than six from 12th. Reports continued in the first week of April, with eight on 1st, two on 2nd, four on 4th and a single female on 6th–7th. A male appeared on 2nd/5th May. Records this late are very rare (two males on 3rd May 2014, plus one male on 1st June 2013). Sightings recommenced in November, with one male on 12th and seven males on 28th. This latter heralded a more frequent presence in December, often of one–five, but eight on 6th/13th and seven on 20th/31st. Most localized reports during the year were from Will Pits Scrape, occasionally at flooded workings.

Common Quail Coturnix coturnix. One was heard on Goole Fields on 9th June.

Red-legged Partridge Alectoris rufa. There were reports on 22 dates, all those specified being in the Creyke's–Creyke's Sidings–Priory Farm area, especially the latter. One–two (mostly singles) were noted on 22nd March and from 7th April–14th June.

Grey Partridge Perdix perdix. There were January records on 16th (ten east of Crowle Moor) and 24th (four). February reports were obtained on 4th (two in a field near Fillingham's Gate) and 14th (five on Goole Fields). In March, two were at the disused Swinefleet Works on 4th, with three on Crowle Moor on 25th. On 22nd April, there was a pair on Goole Fields and one at Lover's Ground. Records on four dates in May were of two pairs on Goole Fields on 12th and occasional birds in the 'Creyke's' fields. Records of two in June–July comprised Top Moor Farm on 9th June, in the 'Creyke's' fields on 30th June and on Goole Fields on 16th July. Pairs, each with four fledged young, were reported in August on 5th (Goole Fields) and 8th (Fillingham's Gate). All subsequent records were unlocalized: 14th September (two), 1st October (seven), 25th November (six) and 21st December (six).

Common Pheasant Phasianus colchicus. During January–May, counts of up to 21 were exceeded only in January: 25 on 19th, 50+ on 24th and 37 on 31st. Rarely reported June–August, although

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breeding was proved 31st May–12th August. During the period September–December counts were relatively low, comprising 10–17 except 22 on 7th December.

Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo. Seen singly on seven dates in January, overhead on at least six of them. Further transient singles occurred on 1st/10th February and 3rd March, with two down on 17th March. April records involved single birds overhead on three dates, three north on 6th and six east on 21st. The last in the earlier months were in May: two west on 2nd and one south-east on 6th. The five reports during 19th–26th September perhaps all involved the same bird at Will Pits Scrape. More frequent in October. Individuals were at Will Pits Scrape on 4th/10th–11th/18th, all singles except two on 11th. The remainder in the month were unspecified or passing birds, on 2nd (two circled Will Pits Scrape and departed northwards), 4th (two overhead, additional to the Will Pits individual), 8th (one), 10th (three north, additional to the Will Pits Scrape individual), 19th (one), 20th (two) and 22nd/31st (singles). In December, there were two on 16th/21st and then one southwest on 23rd.

Eurasian Bittern Botaurus stellaris. One on Goole Moor was regularly heard 'booming' during 1st April–13th May. The fifth record and the first indication of territoriality.

Little Egret Egretta garzetta. Singles occurred on 12 dates during 12th February–24th April, often associated with the Swinefleet Warping Drain–Top Moor Farm–Crowle North Marsh area. However, on the latter date one was at Green Belt Scrape. Later records were restricted to four dates. One was along the western side of the Moors on 23rd June, with a further single on Goole Moor on 17th July. On 10th October, two arrived from the south and landed at Will Pits Scrape. Finally, one flew over Goole Moor on 20th November. Of the two on 10th October, one was colour ringed. It had been marked on 1st August 2015 as a nestling on Ynys Welltog, Menai Strait, Menai Bridge, Anglesey. Thus, it was at Thorne 70 days later, 223km approximately ENE of the ringing site.

Great White Egret Ardea alba. Two flew WNW over Goole Moor on 27th May (TCL). One was at Will Pits Scrape, and later in flight, on 12th November (MW, GF, WHP). The fifth and sixth records.

Grey Heron Ardea cinerea. There were infrequent reports of singles during 6th January–25th April, then records of one–two until late May, plus four north-west on 27th May. Again infrequent in June– July, with single birds, occasionally two–three, but five north on 23rd June and six on 14th July. There were then subsequent singles on further dates, and two on 22nd October.

Little Grebe Tachybaptus ruficollis. Records spanned 8th March–11th October, with counts of one– four only exceeded by five on 26th September. Perhaps four breeding pairs were present. Locations specified included Crowle North Marsh, Goole Moor (including a juvenile on 10th–11th October), Will Pits Scrape, Green Belt Scrape and the 'Paraffin' area.

Great Crested Grebe Podiceps cristatus. There was one at 'Green Belt floods' on 24th March.

Black-necked Grebe Podiceps nigricollis. Recorded at Will Pits Scrape on 7th/9th–10th April and 22nd May–14th June, mostly one or two but occasionally three. There were also singles on 15th July and 10th August, the former at least at Will Pits Scrape. Honey-buzzard Pernis apivorus. In September, there were singles over Pony Bridge Wood on 10th (SH) and from Johnny Moor Long Lane to the 'Paraffin' area on 13th (JS).

Red Kite Milvus milvus. Reported on no less than eight dates, the first being an adult heading southeast on 1st January (BPW, RJS). On 17th February one flew south (GF, WHP). April records began with one east on 10th (RP, DP). On 21st, one soared with Marsh Harriers and Common Buzzards, gradually moving north (DH, BPW). Next day, what may have been the same individual soared with four Common Buzzards (TCL). On 13th September, a juvenile headed south (RJS, DH, BPW), later

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appearing over Hatfield Moors. In October, one flew NNE on 4th (BPW, RJS, MW), and on 6th one flushed gulls from Goole Fields as it headed north (TCL).

Marsh Harrier Circus aeruginosus. All individuals are cited here as described. There is probably a reporting bias in favour of males. Counts throughout January reached four, with five (flying to roost) on 3rd. Single males were observed 9th–19th/29th, with two males on 22nd–23rd. There was an immature male on 25th. Adult females/females were noted through the month, usually singly but with two on 23rd. There were 'creamcrowns' on 15th (three), 16th (two) and 23rd (one). Immatures were logged from 13th, with two on that date and one on 17th, and then singles again during 25th–31st. Harriers flying to roost at flooded workings were seen on several dates, maximum five (as above). During February, single males were observed on 12th–13th/20th. Adult females/females were more frequent, seen singly except two on 8th/25th. There were two 'creamcrowns' on 6th, and single juveniles/immatures on 5th/10th–11th/19th, plus two immatures on 1st. Five flying to roost on 22nd constituted the highest February count. In March, reports of single males were frequent, with two adult males on 22nd/24th/28th, two males on 25th, and an immature male also on 22nd/24th/28th. Reports of females included two on (again) 22nd/24th/28th, also a 'creamcrown' on 18th. Unspecified immatures were seen on 4th/12th. Daily counts sometimes reached five, plus six on 12th–13th. The counts of five during 22nd–28th comprised two adult males, one immature male and two females. Counts in April were often higher, with six on 11 dates, seven on 16th/22nd and eight on 30th. There were many reports of males, generally one–two but three on 7th and four on 16th. There were one–two females, plus three on 10th/22nd. Also, there were two juveniles on 2nd and an immature on 8th. During the month there was the year's first evidence of breeding, with nest-building observed on Goole Moor and a male carrying prey to the nest. By the end of the season, it was considered that a total of three pairs probably bred on the Moors. May totals reached four, with five on six dates and six on 2nd–4th/27th. Most specified reports concerned males, comprising singles, sometimes two, and higher totals of five on 12th, three on 19th/26th and four on 21st. There were occasional reports of single females/'creamcrowns', and two females on 6th/13th/26th. During June–August, there were again totals of up to four, with five on five dates, and six on four June dates and 21st July. Over one half of all specified birds were single males, but with three males on 3rd June. There were occasional reports of females and 'creamcrowns', with these latter numbering three on 9th June and two next day. A possible juvenile was seen on 12th July, and there were two "fledged juveniles" on 21st July; also single juveniles on 23rd/26th August. Additionally, a juvenile with a green tag fixed to each wing was seen widely on 5th August. September reports opened with two males and three females on 1st, with five again on 11th (one adult male, three females and one juvenile) and 29th (one male and four females). There were six on 15th (two males and four 'creamcrowns') and 19th (no details). Adult males/males were reported during 1st–15th, including two males on 1st/15th. Also a single male on 29th. Reports of females were mostly restricted to the first half of September, with one–two except three on 1st/11th/16th. There were 'creamcrowns' submitted for 15th–24th, numbering four on each occasion. Towards the end of the month, there were females on 25th (one) and 29th (four). Single juveniles appeared on 3rd/11th, with two immatures on 5th and finally a single immature on 25th. From October–December, there were numerous counts but with relatively little detail. The daily totals reached six in each month: on 11th/20th October, 11th November and six December dates from 6th–27th. There was a notable peak in November of seven on 10th and nine on 12th. Overall, most of the birds specified were males, usually singles, but with two on 20th October and 25th November. There was an immature male on 28th November. Females occurred in October on 2nd (four), 3rd (three) and 30th (one), with another on 12th December. There were up to four+ 'creamcrowns' in October (maximum on 3rd). Further records of 'creamcrowns' were obtained in late December: two on 23rd and one on 27th. References to roosting were received for 4th October (five+ to roost), 25th November (four, including two males, to roost), and 13th December (six on this date mainly involved birds to roost). In June, a Mallard duckling was predated by a male Marsh Harrier on 12th, and a female caught a Water Vole at the 'Paraffin floods' on 17th. In the same area, single Marsh Harriers each carried a snake on 22nd–23rd July. A male took a Eurasian Teal on 10th September.

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Hen Harrier Circus cyaneus. January yielded up to two males/adult males and a 'ringtail', except for two of the latter on 19th. Many of these reports concerned roosting birds. February sightings were restricted to the first half and involved single 'ringtails', including roosting on 14th. Present through March, amounting to single males and 'ringtails', again sometimes to roost. April reports comprised single 'ringtails' except a male on 22nd. The last spring date was 26th April, the next contact being with a male on 25th August. Then noted from 3rd October to the year-end. The October harriers comprised single males (immature and adult), mainly in the first half, and single 'ringtails' from 14th. November reports concerned unspecified single males, plus 'ringtails' on 5th/26th. In December, there were lone males on 3rd/7th and a 'ringtail' on 13th. Sightings were then more frequent from 20th, with single males plus 'ringtails' on 26th–27th. Also one 27th, a male was chased by a Short-eared Owl and was later observed to capture and feed on a small vole.

Montagu's Harrier Circus pygargus. On 13th May, a male headed south-west over the western side of the Moors (IP). The eighth modern record. Additionally, a small 'ringtail' on 22nd September was possibly this species (TCL).

Eurasian Sparrowhawk Accipiter nisus. In the first half of the year there were sightings of single males and females, with occasionally three unspecified birds in April. This pattern was repeated in the year's second half, with single males and females and occasionally juveniles/immatures. Daily maxima infrequently reached three during September–October/December. On 31st May, a Eurasian Sparrowhawk captured and consumed a Common Swift. A large female caught a Wood Pigeon on 20th December, and others targeted without success during the year included a Linnet and unspecified titmice.

Common Buzzard Buteo buteo. Records were obtained on 212+ dates (136 in 2013, 181 in 2014). The most productive months were March–May, followed by January/September. Daily totals of up to five were frequent, with higher counts of six (March–April, then June and October–November), seven (April/July/November) and eight (March–April/June). Numbers were higher on five dates. On 10th March, a total of 11 was seen heading north-west, followed on 24th March by 12 over Goole Moor– Goole Fields. On 2nd April, the total of 11 included eight thermalling together. Sixteen+ on 26th April was described as a "conservative estimate"; it is the highest ever figure. The only later doublefigure total was ten on 13th September, including six soaring together. A Common Buzzard fed on a Water Vole on 23rd May, and in July others were seen clutching snakes on 7th–8th/14th.

Osprey Pandion haliaetus. One was seen distantly heading north on 9th April (GF, WHP).

Water Rail Rallus aquaticus. January counts reached three on occasion, plus five on 3rd and six on 5th. Throughout February–September, daily totals of one–three were eclipsed by four on 24th March, 4th April and 23rd July. During the Nightjar survey (q.v.), seven Water Rails were located. For the remainder of the year, totals exceeded three in October: 3rd (four), 4th (five) and 18th (six). Many reports were unlocalized, but those given April–August were Inkle Moor, Fisons' Road at Green Belt, Mill Drain Marsh, 'Middle Moor' and Goole Moor/Bank Top. These places also featured at other times of the year, together with the Northern and Southern Canals, Angle Drain and the Will Pits Scrape/Will Pits area.

Moorhen Gallinula chloropus. The numerous reports yielded little beyond day-counts, which achieved five–six occasionally, seven–nine on dates in January/March–April, 13 on 8th March and 18 on 19th April.

Common Coot Fulica atra. Detected 19th February–2nd August, with all counts involving one–three except four occasionally in April and on 3rd May (and see 1st July below). Where given, named locations were Crowle North Marsh, Goole Moor and Will Pits Scrape. Additionally, breeding was proved at the 'Paraffin floods'. Here, a pair with two unfledged young was seen on 25th/28th June, and six on 1st July again included two unfledged youngsters.

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Common Crane Grus grus. The first date was 22nd February, with reports initially involving a pair, with three individuals from 12th March. Eventually, two pairs became established, with their nests respectively on Thorne Waste and Goole Moor. The latter resulted in the sole fledged juvenile, first seen on 3rd June. The last date was 22nd October, when three (assumed to be the family) were watched flying off "high to the south east". They were not reported again. During the year, additional birds were encountered on the following dates: 12th March (three extra); 6th–7th April (three extra); 19th April (one extra); 20th April (five "flew in from east, thermalled high over Will Pits Scrape then flew north"); 14th June (three immatures); 20th July (one third-year: "no red on head"); 2nd August (one third-year); 3rd October (one extra); 4th/6th/10th October (two extra).

Oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus. In April, seen on 16th (two on Goole Moor) and 30th (one over Bank Top). Further individuals appeared on 3rd May (one), 31st May (one south) and 5th July (one on Goole Moor), and three were at flooded workings on 4th June.

Grey Plover Pluvialis squatarola. The only record in the early months was one over Goole Fields on 4th February. Next encountered in September, when one was flushed by a Marsh Harrier from flooded workings on 1st, followed by a single overhead on 29th. In October, singles headed west over Creyke's Crossing on 1st and flew over Will Pits on 6th.

European Golden Plover Pluvialis apricaria. Relatively frequent until 23rd April, with many of those located being associated with Goole Fields and other agricultural land. From the beginning of the year until 10th March there were occasional three-figure totals, but exceeding c.150 only on 18th January when c.293 were at Top House Farm and Goole Fields. After c.30 on Goole Fields on 17th April, the last was a singleton there on 23rd. Occasionally present July–September, apparently restricted to Goole Fields. In July, the dates were 16th (nine), 29th (four) and 30th (32). There were 12 on 6th August and a loner on 20th September. More readily encountered from 1st October (two), at least some of them on Goole Fields. There were again three-figure counts on 3rd (107), 10th (the year's peak of c.500), 11th (c.180) and 25th (c.125). In November, records often emanated from Goole Fields and farmland north of Crowle Moor. After c.150 on 9th–10th, numbers from 22nd reached c.120 on 23rd, c.190 on 25th and 411 on 30th. December counts were only obtained on 16th (177), 23rd (three) and 31st (c.50).

American Golden Plover Pluvialis dominica. A juvenile occurred with Golden Plovers on 25th November on Goole Fields and north of Crowle Moor (TCL). Accepted by British Birds Rarities Committee. The first record. Of interest, one was reported on ploughland south of Swinefleet on 18th April 1990 (Yorkshire Naturalists' Union Bird Report for 1990: 30) but it was not accepted by BBRC.

Ringed Plover Charadrius hiaticula. In April, after one at Thorne Colliery on 12th, singles occurred during 22nd–30th (two on 24th), perhaps all on Goole Moor. Virtually all reports given a location in May–June were from Goole Moor, amounting to ten dates. One–two were eclipsed by seven on 12th May, four on 30th May and three on 23rd June. July counts on Goole Moor reached three, including a breeding pair. They had three unfledged young on 15th, reduced to two on 20th and one on 22nd. Although often lacking any details, there were quite regular reports 1st August–20th September. All August records involved singles except three on 2nd. The numbers in September were of one–two, plus five on 13th and three on 20th. The individual on 10th September was described as a juvenile (perhaps locally bred?). A final bird occurred on 28th October.

Little Ringed Plover Charadrius dubius. Virtually every record given a location was from Goole Moor. There was one on 25th March, the joint-earliest arrival date (with 2006). This was followed by a relatively continuous presence 15th April–17th July, usually one–two, but occasionally three in April and on 12th May. The April counts reached four on 15th/24th–25th and ten on 22nd. Display was watched on 17th April. There were also six on 7th July. The latest were singles in August on 6th/20th. At Thorne Colliery, two on 16th June were followed by one on 19th, the latter departing high to the south-west.

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Northern Lapwing Vanellus vanellus. Until early March, there were reports from only three dates: 1st January (16), 14th February (one) and 15th February (c.120 north-east in three groups). Then regularly observed during March–October, with respective monthly maxima March–May of 62 (16th), 34 (19th) and 22 (29th). On 30th April, three chicks were found on Goole Moor. In May, two young were along Fisons' Road North on 5th, with 20 (described as in pairs) on Goole Fields on 11th. Of five pairs on Goole Moor on 27th May, three of them had broods: four "tiny", two "small" and three "well-grown", one of these latter being predated by a Fox. Further chicks were seen here in June on 2nd (four) and 23rd (five). Otherwise, Lapwing counts in that month occasionally attained 22–29, plus c.50 on 30th. July–August figures were routinely higher, sometimes up to 88, and with eight counts of c.100–c.190, and c.400 on 25th August. There were c.400 again on 1st September. On six other dates in this month (to 20th) there were 106–c.200, the maximum on 12th/19th. October totals were c.100– c.220 on a range of dates, peaking early in the month at c.300 on 2nd and c.420 on 3rd. Although fewer records were notified in November, those from 5th–12th rose from c.270 on 5th to c.630 on 9th, then c.500 on 10th, down to 133 on 12th. Two notable counts later in that month were c.90 on 22nd and c.140 on 25th. December totals reached 43 on 6th and 42 on 23rd, but at the month-end there were c.80 on 29th and c.210 on 31st. Northern Lapwings were captured by Peregrine Falcons on 5th/23rd April.

Whimbrel Numenius phaeopus. Recorded on four spring dates. On 25th April, one heading south landed briefly and then resumed eastwards. Two days later, on 27th, one flew off east from Goole Moor. Transient singles in May were logged on 2nd (east) and 11th (south).

Eurasian Curlew Numenius arquata. Thirteen dates only, the first being 4th February, when a lone bird was feeding with Golden Plovers north of Crowle Moor. On 12th March a further individual passed south. There were five April dates: 6th (one east), 16th (one north-west), 18th (two), 22nd (one overhead) and 25th (one on Goole Moor). Records recommenced in June, with individuals south-west on 17th (one), 20th (eight) and 23rd (seven south-west and 13 west). There were also two south-west on 1st July. On 24th August one flew off north, with a further grounded individual on 8th September.

Black-tailed Godwit Limosa limosa. On 17th April, 16 circled and then headed south-east and 35 flew south; any overlap is not established. Later in that month, there was one on 24th and 30 at flooded workings on 27th. The last of spring were 14 south-west on 24th May. There were two later dates: 26th July (20 south) and 10th August (one).

Bar-tailed Godwit Limosa lapponica. One was identified at flooded workings on 29th July (GF, WHP). The ninth record.

Ruff Calidris pugnax. First encountered in mid-April, with two on 10th, three on 12th and singles on 14th–16th. Apart from an isolated individual on 17th July, the next were in early August, with a frequent presence until mid-September. After one on 6th August, during the remainder of the month there were one–two on 10 dates. Higher totals were obtained on 17th (five), 24th (three), 26th (five south-east), 29th (10 west), 30th (five) and 31st (17 juveniles to pools on Goole Moor). Counts remained relatively high in early September: 1st (11), 2nd (16), 3rd (12), 4th (13) and 5th (14). There were then one–four on nine dates in September to 19th, plus nine on 7th, seven on 13th, five on 14th and 11 next day. There was also a laggard on 11th October.

Dunlin Calidris alpina. Occurred in the second half of April, beginning with four on 15th, two on 16th and one on 18th. There were six on 24th, four on 25th, 10 on 26th, seven on 27th, down to two on 29th. There were three May dates: 12th (17), 25th (two) and 31st (one). July singles were logged on 14th/24th/30th, and then there was a greater presence in August. This amounted to singles on 1st/12th/25th, two on 2nd, five on 6th/8th, with four on 7th. Noted again during 10th–15th September, namely seven on 10th, five on 11th, eight on 12th and singles during 13th–15th. Others occurred on 10th/28th October (singles) and 24th November (two west).

Little Stint Calidris minuta. There was a lone juvenile on 1st August.

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Pectoral Sandpiper Calidris melanotos. One (presumed), age uncertain (had well-marked 'braces'), was seen at the 'Paraffin floods' on 1st/7th/13th August (MW, BPW, SH et al.). The second record.

Common Sandpiper Actitis hypoleucos. The only sighting was of one on 17th July.

Green Sandpiper Tringa ochropus. After one on 12th March there were occasional singles to 17th April. The next appearance was a group of five on 1st July. Other records from this month involved two on 14th, three on 17th/31st and singles on 26th/29th–30th. Noted regularly 1st August–1st September, usually one–three, but nine on 6th, four on 8th/25th, six on 19th and five on 24th. The last was on 8th October.

Greenshank Tringa nebularia. First reported in July, with singles on 17th/21st, then one south on 22nd and a further single on 30th. Regular through August, usually one–three, but five on 15th/20th and six on 23rd/25th/30th. The same broadly applied in the first half of September, with singles, plus seven on 2nd, three on 5th and four on 9th. There was also a loner on 20th September and lastly two on 11th October. A Greenshank was "attacked" by a Peregrine Falcon on 30th August.

Wood Sandpiper Tringa glareola. One on 22nd April constituted an isolated report, and was the earliest ever. Others were present during the weeks from late July. Thus one flew south on 29th July and three occurred on 6th August. There were subsequent singles on 7th–8th/10th/19th/23rd August.

Common Redshank Tringa totanus. Regularly recorded from 17th March–25th June. There were up to two in March, and numerously one–three in April. Higher counts in that month were four–five, plus six on 10th/16th–18th/20th/22nd, eight on 15th, seven on 19th and 10 on 24th. The May figures occasionally attained four, and five on 2nd–3rd/12th/22nd–23rd. June held up to three, with five on 2nd/20th–21st/25th and six on 4th/7th. A pair was reported on 15th May, and two unfledged young were found on Goole Moor on 30th June. In July, two "juveniles" were seen on 7th, and one, "very young", was found on 21st. Also on 7th there were six others, with intermittent July reports of one– three, otherwise bettered by four on 22nd. After 30th July, the only report was of one on 25th August.

Jack Snipe Lymnocryptes minimus. In February, there were singles on 11th/19th and two were flushed by a Marsh Harrier on 21st. The lone March representative was on 18th. April records emanated from 2nd/4th (singles), 6th–7th (two) and 16th (one). After a possible Jack Snipe flushed by a Marsh Harrier on 9th September, there was a confirmed record next day.

Woodcock Scolopax rusticola. Quite regular in January, usually one–two, but three on 1st, four on 21st and seven on 31st. Records in February–March involved one–two, but four on 26th February and three on 21st March. There was also one on 4th April. Reports of 'roding' birds occurred during May– July, including Green Belt, Goole Moor and Crowle Moor. Additionally, during the Nightjar survey (q.v.), two Woodcocks were reported from Crowle Moor. Following a Woodcock on 16th September, there were occasional singles in November and another on 6th December. Two were flushed by a Hen Harrier on 23rd December.

Common Snipe Gallinago gallinago. Throughout the year there were numerous records of one– three, with higher counts January–July of 13 on 24th January, 11 on 6th April, nine on 19th April and eight on 21st July. 'Drumming' was heard during 6th April–1st July, but there was no proof of breeding. Locations included Green Belt, Mill Drain Marsh, the Northern Canals, Goole Moor and the 'Paraffin' area. August totals occasionally attained seven (2nd/24th), and 26 on 6th, 17 on 7th and nine on 29th. September counts reached 12 on 29th, and comprised higher numbers on 8th (23), 11th (58), 14th (52), 15th (c.50), 19th (15) and 20th (c.30). In the first half of October, there were regular reports of up to 17, occasionally 20–24. There were larger figures on 3rd (59), 4th (38) and 10th (34). Less numerous in October from 19th, maximum seven except c.40 on 28th. There were counts during 3rd– 12th November of up to seven, but c.30 on 5th. After four on 21st November, no later counts exceeded two. Marsh Harriers flushed Common Snipe on 24th March (two) and 13th September (five). One was chased by an adult male and a female Peregrine Falcon on 8th August.

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Black Tern Chlidonias niger. A moulting adult was at 'Green Belt floods' on 17th July (GF, WHP, BPW).

Arctic Tern Sterna paradisaea. One was at 'Thousand Acre floods' on 26th April.

Black-headed Gull Chroicocephalus ridibundus. January counts sometimes attained 33–39, with maxima of 43 on 1st, c.50 on 7th and 52 on 26th. In February, the peak was 28 on 1st, but there were higher counts in March, occasionally amounting to 52–58, plus 79 on 8th and 66 on 26th. Reported from the 'Paraffin floods' from 12th March (20), the maximum there being the 66 above. In general, April totals reached 57, with higher ones on 1st (84), 2nd (98), 17th (c.120 south), 18th (77) and 24th (81). On some April dates, the 'Paraffin floods' were specified. Here, the gulls attempted to breed, with evidence of nests in May. These were described as "very few" on 25th/29th. May totals generally did not exceed 26, but made c.30 on 13th/30th. Breeding evidence from June remained meagre, with 11 nests on 3rd and a fledged juvenile on 19th. There were no other known sightings of juveniles. Otherwise, the June maximum was again c.30, on 4th/10th. Counts from 11th June–24th July exceeded 12 on 14th June (13) and 1st–2nd July (14 and 18 respectively). Numbers in August were much higher, at least sometimes including gulls loafing on agricultural land. The maxima were c.350 on 5th, c.340 on 18th and c.150 on 26th. The single September count was c.120 at flooded workings on 24th. Numbers varied in October, reaching 49, but with c.250 on 26th. November totals made it to c.75, but these were overshadowed by c.300 on 10th, c.350 on 24th and c.90 on 30th. Hardly recorded in December.

Mediterranean Gull Larus melanocephalus. An adult was on Goole Fields on 24th November (TCL).

Common Gull Larus canus. The numbers given here combine (if originally stated) both Moors gulls and those on adjacent farmland. January counts occasionally reached 19, with higher figures of c.90 on 18th, 42 on 19th and 59 on 25th. February totals reached c.20, plus 31 on 8th and 28 on 21st. In March, notable counts, in excess of all others, were 25 on 10th and 18 on 23rd. Counts in early April attained 18 on 1st, and the last were 11 on 6th. Later dates to the end of October were 2nd July (one), 5th August (c.100), 9th September (two), 11th October (two), 23rd October (seven) and 31st October (three). There were more records in November, with higher counts from 20th (when c.40), with maxima of 45 on 23rd and c.100 next day. The only December data involved 41 on 23rd December. Both totals in three figures are noteworthy.

Caspian Gull Larus cachinnans. Recorded on eight dates on Goole Fields. The first was on 29th July. There was then a third year/adult on 14th September, and two adults (one wearing a metal ring) on 25th October. A further adult was seen in November on 9th–11th/24th/30th, with a second adult on 11th. (All TCL).

Lesser Black-backed Gull Larus fuscus. Noted in the early months on 3rd January (one), 11th January (two), 14th February (20), 15th February (three overhead), 22nd February (two) and 8th March (one). April records commenced with one adult alongside other gulls at Will Pits Scrape on 1st, with singles occasionally thereafter and five overhead on 23rd. During May–July, single-figure counts were exceeded by 18 on 12th May, 11 west on 25th May, and 17 "pre-roost" on 29th July. With c.80 on 18th August, counts were then sometimes relatively high to early November. After c.580 on 31st August, numbers during 10th–21st September attained c.200 on 10th, c.700 on 14th and c.620 on 21st. These were on Goole Fields, and those on 21st flew off south to roost. The numerous records from October gave three-figure totals on seven dates. There were c.300 on 2nd, c.200 on 3rd/6th, c.390 on 11th, c.250 on 13th and c.180 on 19th/25th. There were 102 on 5th November, with counts of 24–c.50 during that month to 11th, and then very few to the end of the year.

Yellow-legged Gull Larus michahellis. Reported from both the Moors and Goole Fields, beginning in late July. In that month, there were three on 29th and one next day. The August dates were 5th (one juvenile), 29th (18) and 31st (10). In September, after nine on 10th, there were 32 on 14th (a record

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total) and 28 on 21st. During October, after singles on 2nd/10th, counts reached eight on 19th/26th and higher figures on 6th (15), 11th (26), 13th (14) and 25th (10). Those on 11th mostly roosted on Goole Moor. During 9th–11th November, there were four, three and five respectively. (Mostly TCL).

Herring Gull Larus argentatus. During January–April, day counts occasionally reached 22 in January (on 26th), and later totals peaked at 11 passing over on 28th March and 21, also transient, on 5th April. The seven May dates were mostly up to 12th, with eight exceeded by 16 west on 4th and 15 west on 25th. There were June records to 14th, maximum three on 10th/14th. Sightings resumed in mid-August, and until the end of October counts fluctuated, but attained c.30 on 15th August and 21st September, 41 on 17th August and c.40 on 11th October, with no others over 15. During the remainder of the year, there was nothing over 13 recorded on 22nd November.

Great Black-backed Gull Larus marinus. During January–April records were unremarkable. There was a maximum of eight in January–February, no records in March, and up to 13 in April (on 4th). Noted in May on 2nd (three) and 12th (two). There was an isolated individual on 30th July; and then in late August one on 26th, 20 on 29th and six on 31st. Irregularly recorded September–November, with single-figure counts except in early October, when the peak was c.40 on 3rd. The more numerous December details included 11 on 26th.

Rock Dove Columba livia. Feral birds were occasionally recorded, and one was chased by an adult male Peregrine Falcon on 12th April.

Stock Dove Columba oenas. Numbers tended to be small until mid-November. No day-counts exceeded six except on 7th February (20), 17th March (seven) and 11th April (18). Bred in a nest-box at Will Pits. Twenty on 12th November heralded higher counts in December. These reached c.30 on 19th and 42 on 23rd.

Wood Pigeon Columba palumbus. Numerously reported in January, with peaks on 1st (770+), 3rd (c.1500 at dusk), 14th (c.1000), 25th (900+) and 31st (c.500). Numbers were lower during February– March, but with c.500 on 17th February and 4th/16th March. The April maximum was c.100 on 16th, with no further day-counts over c.60 until c.100 on 6th November. December figures exceeded this latter on 9th (c.400), 13th (c.200) and 27th (c.120). The species featured as Eurasian Sparrowhawk prey on 20th December.

Collared Dove Streptopelia decaocto. All records except one were from Creyke's Sidings. The 11 January reports were of one–five, with the same maximum in February. There were up to three in March, two on 19th/22nd April, and up to three again in May (to 22nd). There were few subsequent reports, with two on 28th July, one on 25th September (over the Canals), five on 4th October, and one–three on four subsequent dates to the year-end.

Turtle Dove Streptopelia turtur. Reported on 32 dates, the first being singles on 27th–28th April. Noted intermittently through May, with one–two except five on 3rd. These latter were at Green Belt (three) and Bank Top (two). Besides Green Belt, other locations from later in that month included Durham's Garden and Will Pits/Will Pits Scrape. In June, present at Red House Farm on 4th, with a pair at the disused Swinefleet Works on 9th. Recorded on Crowle Moor on 7th (five) and 17th (two). In the Durham's Garden/Thorne Colliery area, there were five on 12th, three on 15th and two on 27th. At Will Pits there were three on 10th and one on 12th. There were June records of singles occasionally from Green Belt, and on 19th further sightings from Collis's Tram (two) and Limberlost Tram (one). Fewer records in July, beginning with two that flew from Thorne Colliery on 2nd. There were two in the Elmhirst area on 20th. Singles were present along Collis's Tram on 5th, along the Rhododendron Path on 22nd and at Green Belt on 28th. Four occurred on Crowle Moor on 12th. There were singles on four August dates to 25th, the only stated location being Will Pits. Common Cuckoo Cuculus canorus. After one on 14th April, heard and seen regularly until the end of June. Counts of up to five were frequent, with six on 23rd–24th May and 10th/17th June, plus

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seven on 13th May. Present in early July (including four on 2nd), and, finally, noted in August on 8th (juvenile) and 19th (adult).

Barn Owl Tyto alba. In January, singles occurred on 16th (Top Moor Farm) and 19th ('Middle Moor'). The February dates were 13th (Bank Top) and 14th (along Fisons' Road). The two March reports involved Will Pits on 20th and Mill Drain Marsh on 24th. There was one over fields west of the Moors on 2nd April. Most other records in April were centred on a Will Pits nest-box. However, late in the month two were at the disused Swinefleet Works on 22nd, with reports on 30th from Goole Fields Reservoir and in flight from Swinefleet Gate towards the old Swinefleet Works. The focus in May–June was the nest-box, which held c/4, from which chicks were ringed. Other reports in these months were from the eastern part of Goole Moor and the disused Swinefleet Works; also "SW edge" on 22nd May. July data included one on Goole Fields on 7th; and four chicks ringed at Priory Farm on 11th. Occasional during August–September, but the only locations cited were the Thorne Colliery area (8th August) and Bank Top (14th September). Also observed on 6th/29th December, the former on Goole Fields.

Little Owl Athene noctua. Singles were recorded on five dates, the first in March: 4th (the disused Swinefleet Works) and 9th (Top House Farm). Encountered in April on 15th (Top House Farm) and 22nd (the disused Swinefleet Works). There was also one on 27th December, again at Top House Farm.

Tawny Owl Strix aluco. Occasional in January–February, the only location offered being the Green Belt area. After one on 14th March (no location), records were obtained from Will Pits during 26th March–20th April. Two chicks were ringed at Top House Farm on 2nd May, with other reports through to 17th July, mostly without location. The exceptions were 13th May (Green Belt) and 17th July (Bank Top). The Nightjar survey (q.v.) yielded eight calling birds (four of them on Crowle Moor). In addition, breeding was proved on Goole Moor.

Long-eared Owl Asio otus. Occasionally recorded May–July, the locations including Durham's Garden, Green Belt, 'Middle Moor', Goole Moor, Creyke's, "Paraffin" and Inkle Flats. The Nightjar survey (q.v.) located three pairs (calling juveniles). Additionally, young birds were heard on Goole Moor on 3rd June. Records in early September concluded with one at Limberlost Wood on 10th, the last of the year.

Short-eared Owl Asio flammeus. There were singles in January to 19th from Mill Drain Marsh/Fisons' Road; and two were at Inkle Flats on 6th February. Singles during 2nd–22nd April were in the northern parts of the Moors, that on 9th being mobbed by a corvid. One was reported on 10th September by a farmer on Goole Fields. The next was one along Blackwater Dike on 20th November. There were December records on five dates, including three on 6th, and two at Inkle Flats on 23rd/26th–27th. Also in December, a Short-eared Owl chased a male Marsh Harrier on 27th.

†European Nightjar Caprimulgus europaeus. Recorded from 3rd May, the earliest ever arrival date, with reports continuing until late July. The annual breeding survey (16th–27th June) recorded 47 territories (including 15 on Crowle Moor). The results reflect unseasonably low temperatures, apparently depressing the results (53 in 2013, 57 in 2014) (Middleton Ecological Consultancy). A collaborative project began during the year, involving Natural England, the University of York and local volunteers, to undertake a detailed study of Nightjars on Thorne and Hatfield Moors (see Moor Space Issue 3).

Common Swift Apus apus. The first were three on 25th April, with one–four on other April dates. There was movement on 25th–26th, when 32 and seven respectively were "mainly moving west". The numerous counts in May exceeded c.100 on almost 20 dates, maxima c.260 on 10th, c.360 on 14th, 300+ on 18th and c.300 on 21st. Movement was witnessed on 12th (200+ south-west) and 29th (c.130 "moving south around rain"). June totals beyond c.130 were obtained on 7th (c.200), 10th (c.300), 18th (c.420, mainly west) and 23rd (c.200). Numbers were generally lower and fewer in July, with

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three-figure counts on 7th (c.570, ironically the year's maximum), 14th (c.100), 21st/29th (c.200) and 22nd (c.120). August figures declined from c.50 on 1st to c.30 on 2nd, c.40 on 4th, six on 5th and singles thereafter to 29th. A Common Swift was captured and consumed by a Eurasian Sparrowhawk on 31st May. Common Kingfisher Alcedo atthis. Reported on only two dates. On 23rd February, one was along Thorne Waste Drain at Woodpecker Wood, and one was at Durham's Garden on 27th November.

Wryneck Jynx torquilla. On 25th August, one was flushed from the side of Fisons' Road North (GF, WHP). The fifth record.

Green Woodpecker Picus viridis. Recorded on only 14 dates (25 in 2013, 19 in 2014). The first were in March, on 17th (singles at Swinefleet Gate and on Goole Moor) and 24th (one at Will Pits). The four April dates involved singles in the Will Pits area. From late May to the first half of June, one was in the vicinity of Thorne Colliery–Moorends recreation ground. In the second half of July there were reports on 17th (one on Rawcliffe Moor), 24th/29th (two and three respectively in the Will Pits area) and again on 29th (Blackwater Dike). On 8th August there were singles in the Thorne Colliery area and at Will Pits, with another at Will Pits on 10th October.

Great Spotted Woodpecker Dendrocopos major. There were numerous records of one–two, with three on dates in six scattered months. Also four on 10th June and 3rd October. 'Drumming' was heard on Crowle Moor and at Will Pits.

Common Kestrel Falco tinnunculus. Daily counts of up to four were regular, with five on 12 dates, five of these in April. Six occurred on 6th–7th April, 18th June and 6th September, with seven on 4th June. There were eight on 27th April and 6th August, and ten on 24th April. Breeding occurred (four chicks ringed from a nest-box), and families were seen on 26th July and 6th August. A Common Kestrel carried a snake on 15th July.

Merlin Falco columbarius. There were ten dates in January, involving a male on 1st and female or unspecified birds through the month. Single female or unspecified birds were then seen on six dates in February and three in March. There were also females on 15th/17th April and 9th May. After a Merlin on 26th September, the species was reported on four October dates, including a male on 24th. The five November dates included two on 3rd and males on 4th/20th. December records were obtained on eight dates, including females on 20th/31st. In January, a female Merlin mobbed a Peregrine Falcon on 1st, and one mobbed a 'ringtail' Hen Harrier on 11th. A female circled with other raptors on 17th April. A female briefly pursued a Barn Swallow on 9th May, and one chased Linnets on 4th October.

Hobby Falco subbuteo. In April, two on 9th (MW, PL) was the joint-earliest arrival date (with 2011), and is still apparently the earliest in Yorkshire. Records recommenced on 22nd (one), with one–three subsequently plus 10 on 26th and six on 30th. The constant May presence sometimes numbered five, with six and seven on single dates, eight on two dates, and double-figure counts on 10th (14), 11th (10), 12th (17), 13th (13), 15th (10), 21st (18) and 23rd (10). There were up to three in June, plus five on 11th. The July totals occasionally exceeded three, with four on one date, five on two dates, six on three dates and a peak of eight on 29th. In August, the totals reached four on 26th and seven on 29th. In the first half of September, there were four, five and six on single dates each and eight+ on 13th. After one on 25th September, records persisted into October, namely two on 2nd and singles during 3rd–8th. The last were an adult and juvenile on 11th. The other dates with juveniles were 26th August (two adults and two juveniles), 29th August (the total of seven included juveniles), 13th September (three+ juveniles) and 14th September (one juvenile).

Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus. Encountered in each month except June, with birds aged/sexed as given. The 10 January dates featured juvenile females on 1st/3rd, females on 8th/19th, males on 22nd/27th, an adult female on 30th and an immature on 31st. The six dates in February comprised singles on five of them, including a juvenile female on 11th and unspecified females on 22nd/27th.

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Also a male and female on 12th. Reported singly during 10th–23rd March, including a juvenile on 17th, a male on 18th and females on 19th/23rd. The nine April records included an immature female on 2nd, adult males on 4th/12th/30th, an adult female on 15th and a juvenile male next day. The four May records were obtained on 11th–12th (juvenile males), 19th (female) and 31st (unspecified). There were also four dates in July: 1st/16th (immature males), 17th (male) and 23rd (unspecified). The more frequent reports in August began with one on 7th and an adult male and a female "flushing everything" next day. The remaining dates were 11th (immature female), 19th/23rd/25th–26th (unspecified singles), 29th (male and female) and 30th (one). September data commenced with a single bird on 1st, an adult male on 3rd and an immature male on 4th. There were then one–two unspecified birds on later dates, a female on 10th, an adult female on 11th, immature females on 13th/20th and a juvenile on 19th. The 10 October dates included a male and female on 11th, single males on 25th–26th, two lacking any details on 19th and unspecified singles on the others. The five November records included a male on 9th and two unspecified individuals on 16th, with otherwise singles reported. There were nine December dates, including a male on 8th and females on 23rd–24th (near-adult) and 31st, the rest being unspecified singles. Identified prey included Northern Lapwing (5th/23rd April), feral Rock Dove (pursued by an adult male on 12th April), Greenshank ("attacked" on 30th August), Common Snipe and Common Starling (both chased by an adult male and a female on 8th August). Interactions with other raptors were noted on 30th January (an adult female mobbed an immature Marsh Harrier), 19th May (a female and a female Marsh Harrier seen talon-grappling), 1st July (an immature male mobbed by two Hobbies), 17th July (a male mobbed by a Hobby), 10th September (one mobbed a Marsh Harrier and then got the same treatment from a Hobby), 13th September (an immature female "battling" with a Marsh Harrier) and 24th December (near-adult female mobbing two Marsh Harriers).

Rose-ringed Parakeet Psittacula krameri. A male was watched during 14th–17th January at Moorends recreation ground. It wandered more widely on 16th, including Inkle Moor (BPW, IP, GF et al.). The first record.

Red-backed Shrike Lanius collurio. A juvenile was noted along Goole Moor Tram on 11th/13th– 14th September (BPW, SH, MW et al.). The seventh record.

Great Grey Shrike Lanius excubitor. One was present throughout January–early April, being last seen on 7th April. It pursued a Blue Tit on 25th February.

Magpie Pica pica. Present in most months, but uncommon July–August/November and unreported in September. Mostly in single figures, the exceptions being in the early months. These were 1st January (14), 16th January (10), 14th February (20) and 18th March (11). Nine together on 12th June was also notable.

Eurasian Jay Garrulus glandarius. Reported throughout the year, almost invariably one–three per day. The main exception to this was the first part of October: five on 4th and six on 10th–11th. Additionally, there was an isolated peak of seven on 5th April.

Jackdaw Corvus monedula. The earliest records involved singles over Goole Moor in March: 12th (west) and 24th (south). At the same location, further Jackdaws passed over in April on 5th (one south-west), 7th (two west) and 10th (one). The next were in mid-September, again over Goole Moor. The dates were 19th (three), 20th (two) and 22nd (two). There were six October dates: 1st (eight), 2nd (10), 3rd–4th (four), 11th (three) and 20th (one).

Rook Corvus frugilegus. The first record was of c.40 overhead north of Crowle Moor on 24th January. One was on Goole Fields during 25th January–11th February, with a damaged wing from 31st. Substantial counts were obtained late July–early November, mainly in fields beyond the northern half of the Moors: 29th July (106), 19th August (c.80), 23rd August (c.80 on Goole Fields), 26th August (25 at Top Moor Farm), 29th August (c.50 on Goole Fields), 1st October (c.500 on Goole Fields and north of Crowle Moor), 2nd October (c.40) and 6th November (c.50).

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Carrion Crow Corvus corone. Day-counts attained 20, sometimes more. Totals in January reached c.70, and exceeded this on 1st (c.240), 13th (c.170), 14th (c.120) and 25th (140+). Those on 1st were going to roost. Similarly, c.270 on 1st February were moving to roost. Throughout the rest of the year to October, there were occasional counts of c.30 (March–April/October), c.50 on 20th March, c.80 on 14th April and c.40 on 3rd October. In November, there were c.50 on 7th and c.180 on 22nd. An incubating bird was observed on Crowle Moor on 23rd April.

Goldcrest Regulus regulus. Records during January–March comprised one–four, with the last being five on 6th April. After one on 6th September, present throughout the rest of the year, again in daily totals of up to four, occasionally up to nine in September. However, in October, counts reached 15, and exceeded this on 15th (19) and 25th (18). Eleven on 2nd November extended the October influx.

Blue Tit Cyanistes caeruleus. During January–April, counts reached double figures sometimes, peaking in January on 1st (11) and 13th (27). There were 10 on 5th February and 17th March, and 20 on 16th March. Less frequently reported May–September, up to five per date except 10 on 17th June. From October, totals peaked at seven on 29th December. A Blue Tit was pursued by a Great Grey Shrike on 25th February.

Great Tit Parus major. There were counts throughout the year, fewest June–August. Double-figure totals began with 13 on 1st January, with others in this month on 16th (12) and 23rd (10). There were 15 on 2nd February, 12 on 16th March, 11 on 23rd March and 12 on 19th April. From May– December, there were totals of up to five, exceeded on 22nd May (eight), 3rd October (six) and 4th October (10).

Coal Tit Periparus ater. Singles were encountered on 12th January, 5th February and 24th March, with two on 16th January and 19th March. There were April reports of two on 2nd/15th and singles on 19th/26th. After one on 16th July, there was another on 7th August and two on 26th September. There were then singles on 8th/11th/25th October, 12th November and 14th/23rd/31st December. In the later months there were also two on 12th October and 2nd November.

Willow Tit Poecile montana. Recorded regularly, with many counts of one–two, seven counts of three (April/July/September–December), and three counts of four (April/October). No evidence of breeding.

Bearded Tit Panurus biarmicus. One was heard calling at Blue Bridge on 4th November (MW).

Woodlark Lullula arborea. On Crowle Moor, single males sang in May on 8th/13th (RW, PL, BPW), and two sang on 10th (BPW, RJS, JS).

Skylark Alauda arvensis. Frequently counted, although with few dates in August/November– December. Monthly maxima were two, seven, 11, nine, five, seven, four, two, 11, c.80, 14, five. In October, after 26 on 8th, there were c.30 on 10th, c.60 on 11th, 76 (mostly west) on 17th and c.80 on 25th. Nested in peripheral fields, with fledged young observed on 17th June.

Sand Martin Riparia riparia. After a lone bird moving west on 13th March, more regular reports commenced on 7th April, when three were seen, two of them heading north. Notable April counts were obtained on 11th (c.15), 15th (c.40) and 16th (c.106, including c.60 north-east at dusk). Then low figures during the remainder of April and in May, the exceptions being c.30 on 26th April and 12 on 9th May. The only June report was of four on 30th. There were occasional records during the second half of July, notably c.40 on 21st and c.20 on 29th. After singles in August to 5th, late in the month there was one on 29th and four on 31st. In September, occasional records of up to three were bettered by c.20 on 5th/8th, c.35 on 9th, and 10 – the last – on 15th.

Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica. In April, numerously reported from 7th (two), with the first high total on 11th (54), with further counts of 20–54 from 12th–24th, then 235 on 25th, c.120 on 27th, and

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other totals of c.50–c.80 late in the month. May counts reached 72 on occasion, and exceeded this on 2nd (c.300), 5th (c.200) 12th (150+), 13th (c.150), 14th (c.180), 18th (300+), 29th (150+) and 31st (100+). A female Merlin briefly pursued a Barn Swallow on 9th May. June records were frequent but numbers were lower, with an excess of 20 only in mid-month: 49 on 14th and c.50 on 18th. Similarly in July, there was nothing over 12 except c.60 on 12th. August figures reached c.30, with c.40 on 8th, c.70 on 23rd, and a maximum of c.600 on 31st. During the first half of September there were quite numerous counts of up to c.50, with c.80 on 4th, c.700 on 5th, c.1500 on 8th, 78 on 9th, c.100 on 13th/17th and c.200 on 15th. The count on 8th is almost unprecedented, only equalled on 5th August 1994. There was westerly passage in September on 3rd–4th/8th. For the remainder of September the maximum was eight on 21st. In October, there was one on 1st and finally four on 11th.

House Martin Delichon urbicum. In April, there were occasional singles from 11th, the earliest ever, and then two–seven from 16th and, notably, c.85 on 25th. This latter was the forerunner of sometimes high counts during the months to September. Thus May totals peaked at c.40 on 2nd/12th, c.80 on 14th/31st, 50+ on 18th/29th, c.100 on 19th and c.60 on 25th. During 2nd–21st June there were up to 16, even 24, and c.30 on 6th/10th. Rarely reported 23rd June–20th July, but later July totals achieved 20 on 21st/28th and c.100 on 29th. Up to 10 in the first half of August were eclipsed by c.90 on 18th and c.30 on 29th/31st. In the first half of September, figures up to 32 were bettered by c.150 on 5th, a notable c.300 on 8th, 159 on 15th and c.80 next day. The only subsequent report was of 10 on 26th September.

Cetti's Warbler Cettia cetti. At the eastern end of Goole Moor Tram/Swinefleet Warping Drain, a male was present in December from 7th (TCL, GF, WHP et al.). The second record.

Long-tailed Tit Aegithalos caudatus. Monthly maxima were 21, 28, 22, 12, six, seven, eight, 17, 18, 25, 30, 23. A family party was seen on 3rd June.

Wood Warbler Phylloscopus sibilatrix. One gave good views at Will Pits on 4th May (RB). The fifth record.

Common Chiffchaff Phylloscopus collybita. There were singles in March from 17th, plus four on 24th and two on 28th. April numbers sometimes reached 16, but with 20 on 9th and 25 on 10th. Counts May–August reached 12 on 13th May, 16 on 14th July and 14 on 25th August. Totals during 1st September–12th October occasionally attained nine, plus September peaks on 9th (12) and 19th (10). There were then singles logged on 25th October, 20th November and 14th/31st December.

Willow Warbler Phylloscopus trochilus. Recorded in April from 7th (two), with subsequent counts above c.30 on 19th (79) and 22nd (52). May figures did not exceed 19 except 44 on 22nd; at least 25 males held territory. Reports from June–August provided counts of up to 11, with 14 on 24th June, 15 on 2nd July and c.30 on 22nd August. There were two–nine on dates in September up to the last, three on 11th.

Blackcap Sylvia atricapilla. After one singing briefly on 8th April, counts in that month reached 12, extending to 20 on 19th and 15 on 23rd. Counts May–September rarely exceeded 12, but peaked at 24 on 22nd May, 19 on 26th May, 14 on 30th May and 20 on 2nd July. A juvenile was at Will Pits on 3rd September. The October rearguard numbered three on 1st and four on 3rd, with singles on 2nd/4th/10th/18th.

Garden Warbler Sylvia borin. After odd ones in April from 18th, May counts were of up to four except seven on 22nd and 18 on 26th. There were fewer records during June–July, but with June totals up to nine (11th) and then six on 2nd July. August fieldwork (including ringing) accounted for three on 7th, five on 11th, seven on 16th and two on 22nd. Lesser Whitethroat Sylvia curruca. Two were along Jones's Cable on 13th May. In mid-June, singing birds in the Thorne Colliery area comprised two on 12th and one during 15th–19th.

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Common Whitethroat Sylvia communis. Reported in April from 12th, with a maximum of 10 on 27th. The May peaks were 32 on 22nd and 11 on 26th. June records included 12 on three dates, with up to nine in July, and August spikes of 20 on 19th/24th. During September, there were up to five in the first half and singles thereafter to 24th.

Grasshopper Warbler Locustella naevia. After the first on 14th April, there were one–four on many dates to 22nd July, although with eight on 25th April. During the Nightjar survey (q.v.) only eight 'reeling' males were found: "[the] population has crashed from the previous year when 35 were recorded and is the lowest count since 2007" (unpublished report). The last, still 'reeling', was heard on 2nd August.

Sedge Warbler Acrocephalus schoenobaenus. Recorded in April from 10th (an early date), with reports of up to nine in April–May, and maxima of 11 in April and 15 in May, the latter on 13th. June–August counts occasionally reached seven, with eight on 2nd July. In September, there were two on 6th and singles on 8th/11th.

Reed Warbler Acrocephalus scirpaceus. The first sang on 19th April, with one–two for the rest of the month. Counts in May attained 11 on 22nd and 12 on 23rd. During June–August, totals occasionally reached four, and six on 20th August. After up to four in the first week of September, there were subsequent singles to 16th.

Eurasian Treecreeper Certhia familiaris. Encountered on 25 dates, six of them in January, comprising singles on 1st/11th–12th/19th and two on 16th/28th. All subsequent reports were of single birds. These were on 12th/14th February, 18th/26th March, 4th/6th/16th/25th April, 20th/22nd July, 18th/25th September, 2nd/4th/11th/27th October, 3rd November and 11th/26th December. Singles were on Crowle Moor on 18th March, on the northern edge of Goole Moor on 4th April, and at Top House Farm on two dates. All other locations given involved the Will Pits area.

Wren Troglodytes troglodytes. Totals through the year sometimes reached 12, but there were higher counts on 13th January (23), 12th March (20), 2nd April (17), 19th April (31), 22nd May (20) and 11th December (20).

Common Starling Sturnus vulgaris. There were frequent counts in January of up to c.30, also c.50 on three dates 14th–25th. Higher totals were of 96 on 1st, c.150 on 12th, 85 on 13th, c.80 on 16th, 200+ on 23rd and c.120 on 27th. February sometimes delivered up to c.160, but with c.200 on 4th/11th/19th, c.350 on 12th and c.750 on 14th. Some of the larger totals at least were from Goole Fields. March figures exceeded c.130 on 4th (c.180), 12th/16th/19th (c.200) and 18th (c.300). Some of these were on agricultural land. Starlings were then absent until June. In this month, after one on 10th, 44 flew west on 17th, three were on Goole Moor on 25th, and two (no details) appeared on 30th. The sole July report was of c.90 on 29th, this heralding a greater presence in August. There were four on 1st/6th, 12 on 7th, 11 on 8th, then higher counts on 10th (c.250), 26th (c.150 at Top Moor Farm) and 27th (20). A Common Starling was chased by an adult male and a female Peregrine Falcon on 8th August. September began with one on 12th, with further reports on 13th (39 at Swinefleet Gate), 21st (c.90 on Goole Fields) and 22nd (63, also Goole Fields). Counts in the first half of October peaked at c.130 on 2nd and 139 on 11th. After c.300 on 19th, there were c.1000 on 25th (roosting birds), c.500 on 26th, and c.1500 "to roost" on 28th. Counts were highest in November, beginning on 5th, with c.1000 in a field at Creyke's and c.4000 flying to roost. There were c.6600 "gathering over moors" on 7th, c.3000 south on 9th and c.3500 on 10th. Totals from 11th November–7th December occasionally attained c.150, plus c.300 on 12th November. From 12th–31st December there was nothing over c.30 except 328 on 31st.

Ring Ouzel Turdus torquatus. Noted in the second half of April. On 14th–15th, a male and female were feeding on berries of Ivy Hedera helix in the garden at Top House Farm (JH, RM, BMB). The male was also present on 16th (BPW). In the goat field adjoining Crowle Moor (henceforth the goat

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field), there were single male and female on 18th and the male alone on 19th (RP, DP). Elsewhere, a male was on Goole Moor on 18th/23rd (BPW, TCL). The best ever year.

Blackbird Turdus merula. January counts periodically achieved 20, maximum 23 on 1st and 39 on 13th. February–March counts reached 10, occasionally more, the February maximum being 19 on 12th and the March maximum 21 on 19th. Totals were lower during April–May, but reached 16 in April (19th) and 11 in May (22nd). The fewer reports during June–September only gave double-figure counts on 14th July (10) and 19th August (13). Maxima increased in October, with two of 13 (9th/31st), plus 22 on 10th and c.30 on 27th. The November peak was 12 on 12th, but with doublefigure totals from mid-December, beginning with 36 on 13th and then up to 13–16 thereafter.

Fieldfare Turdus pilaris. Frequently reported throughout January, with maxima of 378 on 1st, c.270 on 16th and c.160 on 28th. February numbers exceeded c.140 on three dates, involving c.200 on 12th/15th/22nd. In March, totals occasionally went beyond c.100, peaking at c.170 on 12th and c.160 on 18th. April totals reached 20 on 5th, 16 on 6th and 10 on 18th–19th. After one on 23rd April, eight flew west on 24th, and then absent until 11th October (10). Twenty-six on 19th October heralded three-figure counts from 20th. These reached 125 on 21st, c.336 (including c.140 south) on 26th, and c.200 on 30th. Numbers increased in November, with counts over c.200 quite frequent. They peaked at 572 on 5th, c.1170 on 10th, c.780 on 12th, but then with falling levels to c.120 on 21st. The only subsequent November totals of note were c.100 on 28th and c.210 next day. In December, numbers reached c.100, peaking at the month-end with c.110 on 29th and c.240 on 31st.

Song Thrush Turdus philomelos. Daily totals throughout the year occasionally reached four, with six on 20th April, five on 10th May and eight on 12th June.

Redwing Turdus iliacus. Present during January–March, but often no more than seven. However, some January counts reached up to c.40 (maximum on 16th). There were also c.40 on 6th February and c.100 on 19th March. After two on 24th March there was a single on 5th April, and then no more until the beginning of October. In that month, after 123 on 3rd, there were single-figure counts to 19th (except 20 on 18th). From 20th, when c.100 noted, records reached 37 on 28th and c.80 on 31st. Counts during November attained c.40 on 5th/12th, c.180 on 10th and c.80 on 11th, with nothing over 11 thereafter. The December numbers were low, but included c.40 on 11th and c.65 on 13th.

Mistle Thrush Turdus viscivorus. During January–April quite frequently noted, maximum five on 18th March. Irregularly reported May–September, including seven on 9th June and nine on 25th September, but otherwise not above four. There were one–three on dates in October/December but none in November.

Spotted Flycatcher Muscicapa striata. In August, reported on 5th (Warping Drain Bridge), 7th (Fillingham's Gate) and 25th/27th (two at Will Pits Scrape). There was also a singleton at Will Pits on 19th September.

Robin Erithacus rubecula. Monthly maxima were 13, 16, 24, 15, 10, two, eight, seven, 52, c.50, seven, seven. In September, counts were unremarkable until 20 on 22nd, then 29 on 26th and 52 on 29th. After c.50 on 1st October, later counts in that month were notable on 2nd (c.30), 3rd (32), 8th/27th (41) and 20th (36).

Thrush Nightingale Luscinia luscinia. Remarkably, one was caught and ringed at Top House Farm on 24th August (BMB, BPW, JH). Accepted by BBRC. The first record, and the 16th for Yorkshire. All in the county have been in spring except this and one other. Also, the Thorne bird shares with that from Redcar the distinction of not being at Spurn.

Pied Flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca. A female/immature was on the northern edge of Goole Moor on 25th August (TCL). The fifth modern record.

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Black Redstart Phoenicurus ochruros. A female/immature showed well at Will Pits on 3rd March (SH). The sixth record.

Common Redstart Phoenicurus phoenicurus. Seen on five dates, with the first on 22nd July at Top House Farm. In August, a male was along Swinefleet Warping Drain at Will Pits on 25th, and along the same drain at Pony Bridge Marsh on 26th–27th. There was again one at Top House Farm on 11th September.

Whinchat Saxicola rubetra. With records from 12 dates, the first were single males (possibly the same) on 24th–26th April. In May, there were two males on 1st and single males on 10th/20th. Reported in August on 29th (one) and 30th (two). There were September singles on 1st/6th/9th/17th.

European Stonechat Saxicola rubicola. Recorded throughout the year, and at least five pairs bred, with good productivity. The maximum number of males counted was six (22nd February). Monthly maxima of all birds were 11, 11, 10, four, 11, six, eight, seven, 21, 10, five, eight. These included notable January totals on 18th (10) and 19th (11). In February there were 11 on 22nd/25th; with 10 on 10th March. The 11 on 23rd May included fledglings. Stonechat numbers in September reached up to nine during 1st–14th, but then there was a spike to 21 on 15th, with 10 on 17th/26th and 11 on 25th. The birds on 15th were not part of a wider influx, the number being therefore locally generated. It is matched only by 20 on 30th September 2014. There was then one further double-figure count, of 10 on 8th October.

Northern Wheatear Oenanthe oenanthe. Singles were on Goole Fields on 25th/31st March. Frequent in April from 6th, with day-counts of one–three, four on 13th and five on 17th. In the first half of May, the day-counts again reached five on 11th–12th and four on 13th. Then from 16th–25th only singles were encountered. Noted again from the end of July. On 29th two were logged, including a juvenile at Goole Fields Reservoir. There was then one on 31st July, singles on 7th/12th/19th August and again on 1st/9th/13th–14th September. There was also a lone bird on 4th October.

Dunnock Prunella modularis. Monthly maxima were seven, four, three, four, two, one, two, one, two, six, two, four.

House Sparrow Passer domesticus. Where locations were given, records of up to 10 in January– February were from Moorends recreation ground (two on 1st January) and Creyke's Sidings. Further records, in mid-April, involved up to c.20 at Creyke's Sidings (maximum on 16th–17th). Irregular reports from there during May–July included 16 on 22nd May, c.20 on 25th June, and c.30 on 17th/28th July. The final data from Creyke's Sidings involved early August, with c.20 on 1st and c.60 on 8th. There were also reports from 18th September (one) and 23rd December (four), but these lacked localities.

Tree Sparrow Passer montanus. In January, records from Creyke's Sidings involved two on 12th and c.20 on 25th. Also, on 22nd there were 20+ in the goat field. Records in February included 35 in the goat field on 15th. In March, counts of one–six were notified from Swinefleet Gate and Creyke's. The more numerous April reports, of up to eight per date, emanated from Top House Farm, Creyke's Sidings, Swinefleet Gate, Red House Farm and Crowle Moor. At the latter there were 30+ in the goat field area on 4th. In May, up to three were at Swinefleet Gate, with others occasionally at Creyke's Sidings (six on 31st) and Crowle Moor ("several" on 6th). During June–August there were odd singles at Swinefleet Gate; plus up to three at Creyke's Sidings in early June. September reports included five over the 'Paraffin' area on 5th, and seven+ in the goat field on 13th. More frequently seen in October, with up to six, the locations given being Swinefleet Gate and the Crowle Moor area. There were 10 in the goat field on 30th. Three at Swinefleet Gate on 23rd November were followed by occasional singles in December, plus 25 in the goat field on 27th.

Yellow Wagtail Motacilla flava. After two on 14th April, counts through the month reached four. May maxima were seven on 11th and 16 on Goole Fields on 21st. June counts did not usually exceed

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four, the exception being nine (two pairs with young) on 23rd. July–August totals reached five, with higher numbers in the latter month of eight on 8th, 14 on 15th and 10 on 20th. Immatures were seen on 28th July. September counts began with five on 1st, with others of up to four in the first half. The last were singles on 17th/21st.

Grey Wagtail Motacilla cinerea. After one at Fillingham's Gate on 5th January, the next was at Mill Drain Marsh on 27th April. Another flew over Goole Moor on 22nd September. On 10th October, one flew from Swinefleet Warping Drain to Crowle North Marsh, with perhaps the same bird next day over Goole Fields. In addition, there was a rare summer record of one south-west over 'Middle Moor' on 21st June. This was only the third June record, with others on 22nd June 1997 and 30th June 2014.

Pied Wagtail Motacilla alba. Monthly maxima were one, one, four, five, four, four, nine, 41, 12, five, two, 28. The nine on 7th July included six fledged young on Goole Moor. August counts reached 14, apart from 41 on 30th, a high total. December numbers peaked at 28 on 13th, when 13 flew south and 15 were at Bank Top. There were also 18 on Goole Fields on 31st, with otherwise only up to four in December. White Wagtail M.a. alba occurred on two dates, the first being 15th April, when one was on Goole Moor (BPW). Two were at the 'Paraffin floods' on 13th September (BPW, RJS, DH), and constitute the first record outwith the period 28th March–29th May.

Tree Pipit Anthus trivialis. On Crowle Moor, the vanguard were two on 23rd April, with further reports from there during May–mid-June, including five on 9th June. One sang on the edge of Goole Moor from 21st May–18th June. Another sang along Lonesome Pine Track on 5th/19th June, this latter being the latest date submitted.

Meadow Pipit Anthus pratensis. There were reports throughout January–February of one–three, and four on 27th January. There were higher totals in March, the maxima being 17 on 12th and 12 on 26th. Numerously recorded during April–May, with counts sometimes nudging over 10, with monthly maxima of 18 on 10th April and 12 on 22nd May. Additionally, on 7th April c.120 passed north. A c/5 was found on Crowle Moor on 8th May. June totals reached 23 on 20th and 10 next day. July– August figures exceeded six only on 17th July (12) and 16th August (15). Well witnessed in September, peaking at c.30 on 19th/26th, c.45 on 25th and c.130 on 17th, these latter being along Fisons' Road (c.100) and Goole Moor Tram (c.30). The October counts were lower, but achieved 32 on 4th and c.60 on 8th. After 28 on 11th, totals dropped although 21st mustered 14. There were few November records (maximum three). The December reports were all of one–two except eight on 27th and seven on 28th. Both of these latter were from Thorne Colliery.

Water Pipit Anthus spinoletta. On 21st December, one was flushed from Swinefleet Warping Drain on Goole Moor and flew off to the east (TCL). The second record.

Brambling Fringilla montifringilla. Reported in October on 11th (one at Durham's Garden), 25th (two departed southwards from Goole Moor) and 31st (two).

Common Chaffinch Fringilla coelebs. Most January reports emanated from a roost in the Thorne Colliery area. Counts of up to 292 dispersing birds were exceeded on 5th (322), 7th (391), 15th (416), 16th (c.350) and 26th (321). Game cover on the northern edge of Goole Moor held up to 23 late in the month. February records began with 38 at Creyke's Sidings on 1st, but thereafter did not exceed 10 anywhere. In March, there were 51 on Goole Moor–Goole Fields on 12th, and there were 52 (no details) on 24th. Other March totals were up to 18, with the goat field attracting 15 on 19th. From April–September, counts rarely exceeded single figures, with twin peaks of c.20 on 19th April and c.30 on 15th September. October–November totals were highest in the former month: c.30 on 3rd, 25 on 4th and 12 on 27th. In December, the Colliery area roost again boosted totals, with submitted counts amounting to 384 on 13th, 423 on 23rd, 254 on 24th, 735 on 26th and 493 on 27th.

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Bullfinch Pyrrhula pyrrhula. January–February totals reached 13 on 1st January, with eight on 13th/19th January and 21st February, and nine on 12th February. There were up to six on other dates. Subsequent day-totals to September occasionally made it to four (March/June–September), with five on 19th June. October totals exceeded four on 3rd (five), 22nd (eight) and 30th–31st (six). In the final two months, there were four on 9th/12th November and 4th/6th December, eclipsed by 10 on 5th November and then six on 12th/16th December.

Greenfinch Chloris chloris. Recorded in 10 months (not June–July), with counts up to May of six or more on several dates. In January, these were 5th (16) and 16th (13). The March peak was 13 on 17th, with 10 on 3rd May. During August–December, totals reached seven (August–October), with eight on 26th November and nine on 23rd December.

Linnet Linaria cannabina. Well-recorded in January, particularly birds flying to roost. These roosting totals peaked at c.200 on 1st, c.275 (including c.175 to roost) on 11th, and 228 on 13th. On the northern edge of Goole Moor there were 47 in game cover on 30th. February totals lacked detail except 28 "to roost" on 22nd. There were c.80 on 8th, c.30 on 12th and c.200 on 14th. Counts from March–early May occasionally attained 16, sometimes up to 23, with peaks in March on 19th (c.50) and 24th (48). Quotable April figures were 46 on 2nd, 62 on 10th, c.70 on 16th and 48 on 19th. Some of these were again on the edge of Goole Moor. After 10 on 4th May, there were single-figure counts until late September, the exceptions being 13 on 17th July, 12 on 22nd August and 18 on 29th August. Following c.60 on 26th September, counts climbed further in early October, with c.300 on 2nd–3rd and c.120 on 4th; this latter total was repeated on 26th. The Linnets on 2nd–3rd were on Goole Fields and north of Crowle Moor. A Merlin chased Linnets on 4th October. Counts in November sometimes reached c.50 (11th/19th). In December, there were three totals over c.60: c.100 on 6th, c.70 on 20th and c.90 next day.

Twite Linaria flavirostris. On 22nd March, one was ringed at Top House Farm (BMB,WM, RM). On 13th April, three were along Fisons' Road North (SH). Lesser Redpoll Acanthis cabaret. From January–22nd March, totals tended to be in single figures, there being two exceptions: 42 on 1st January and 11 on 9th March. The next records occurred in September from 11th, including six on 19th and nine on 25th. October totals numbered up to 18, and went beyond this in the first part: c.60 on 1st, 46 on 4th, 37 on 8th and 23 on 10th. No counts 11th October–29th December exceeded single figures, save 10 on 20th October.

Common Redpoll Acanthis flammea. In January, there were records on 7th (18 feeding in birch Betula at Will Pits) and 13th (one in the Thorne Colliery area) (BPW). Two were at Swinefleet Gate on 23rd November (BPW).

Common Crossbill Loxia curvirostra. On 18th August, two were at Will Pits (GF, WHP). Five (one male and four females/immatures) on 3rd October alighted in a birch along Goole Moor Tram, and then departed towards Will Pits (BPW).

Goldfinch Carduelis carduelis. There were numerous counts but virtually no details. The January peaks were 32 on 5th and 45 on 7th; followed in February by 26 on 2nd and 104 on 14th. During March–July the peak was 20 on 16th March, with most counts in single figures. In August, the numbers exceeded 25 on 26th (c.120) and 27th (38). Similarly in September, 18 was a threshold that eliminated all counts except c.50 on 8th, c.30 on 15th and 26 on 19th. Notable October totals began with 39 on 10th, then c.60 on 11th, and up to 24–34 thereafter. November records included 64 on 3rd, 71 on 19th and 32 on 21st. The December maximum was c.50 on 4th, but there were also 37 on 13th, 33 on 23rd and 31 on 27th.

Siskin Spinus spinus. In the earlier months, the sole record was one on 16th January. June records involved two on 21st and one on 30th. Then encountered in early July on 1st (one) and 8th (two). There were more frequent details from September–October, with up to four on 23 dates, plus eight

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west on 11th October. During November–December, singles occurred on four dates, with two on 5th November and 24th December, and c.30 on 19th November.

[Snow Bunting Plectrophenax nivalis. One was on Goole Fields at St Helena on 10th November (TCL). Beyond the study area but included for interest].

Corn Bunting Emberiza calandra. There were singles on 17th/27th March, 13th/24th April, 8th May and 6th August. Locations, where given, were Top Moor Farm, Crowle Moor and (in August) Goole Fields. There were also two (but no location) on 21st/29th July.

Yellowhammer Emberiza citrinella. Counts during January–March occasionally reached 10, with 12 on 16th January and 6th February and 20 on 9th February. As on this latter date, the favoured location was the goat field. Counts in April exceeded nine only on 19th (20), these latter again seeking the company of goats. There were then eight on 2nd May, and up to five for the rest of the year.

Reed Bunting Emberiza schoeniclus. The numbers in January extended to 18 on 3rd–4th, 19 on 18th and 22 on 20th, but otherwise rarely exceeded six. In February, there were double-figure counts on 6th/10th (29), 12th (13), 17th (19), 20th (23) and 25th (17). More numerously recorded in March, with totals of 21–26 bettered by c.40 on 9th and 48 on 14th/17th. There were fewer in April, but with more than 13 on 2nd/25th (16), 14th (14) and 18th (20). During May–August, maxima were 12 on 23rd May, 11 on 19th August and 12 again on 24th August. There were some high counts in September, on 15th (c.30), 22nd (27), 26th (33) and 29th (28). After c.60 – a notable figure – on 1st October, the peak counts in the rest of that month were c.20 on 2nd/20th, 24 on 3rd/10th–11th, c.40 on 8th and 23 on 27th. Scarcer in November (with seven on 4th–5th); and with fluctuating numbers in December, these latter reaching 18 on 11th, 14 on 13th and 15 on 27th.

* * * * *

Green Pheasant Phasianus versicolor. A male was on the northern edge of Goole Moor on 23rd April (GF, WHP).


Hedgehog Erinaceus europaeus. There were four records of singles. These were obtained on 8th June (Goole Moor), 6th July (Fillingham's Gate area), 14th July (no details) and 25th August (dead near Fillingham's Gate).

Mole Talpa europaea. In June, singles were found dead on the northern edge of Goole Moor on 11th, and at Durham's Garden on 15th.

Common Shrew Sorex araneus. Single animals were reported on 7th January (dead on the canal towpath towards the Viewing Platform), 4th February ('Middle Moor'), 9th June ("western edge of moor"), 22nd July (dead on the Rhododendron Path) and 13th November (along Fisons' Road North).

Pipistrelle Pipistrellus sp. On 17th July, single bats at Will Pits and Fillingham's Gate were reported as pipistrelles.

Rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus. Apart from five on Goole Moor on 25th May, all located records were from the Will Pits–Bank Top area. These were in April–May, maximum eight on 13th May; plus one on 19th August. Unlocalized totals of Rabbits were submitted for dates during April–May (maximum four), also six on 17th June. Brown Hare Lepus europaeus. Of the 51 dates recorded, only five occurred during the second half of the year, with none at all in October/December. April–June were the most prolific months. Overall, the majority of records involved single Hares, including all those from July onwards. There were

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occasionally two–four, five on 19th April, six on 30th May, and seven on 19th/25th May and 6th June. The maximum was eight on 10th March and 22nd May. Relatively few locations were given, with the western and north-western moor margins and Goole Fields the most frequent.

Grey Squirrel Sciurus carolinensis. The first were two on Inkle Moor on 1st January, with no more until one at Will Pits on 4th April. Three May records of singles were obtained on 1st (no details), 22nd (Goole Moor) and 30th (no details). One was in Woodpecker Wood on 12th October.

Water Vole Arvicola terrestris. Reported on six dates in April: 11th (one), 16th (two), 18th (five), 19th (one), 20th (one) and 25th (one). Those on 18th were at Fillingham's Gate (two), Blackwater Dike (two) and the eastern edge of Crowle Moor (as Fox prey). The only other April record with a location was that of 19th, when one was along Blackwater Dike. One was at the same place on 22nd May. Next day, a Common Buzzard was feeding on a Water Vole at Shoulder o' Mutton Tram. At "Paraffin", a Stoat carried a Water Vole in its jaws on 10th June. A week later, on 17th, another was captured by a female Marsh Harrier at the 'Paraffin floods'. The only record from the second half of the year concerned a single animal in New Mill Drain at Blue Bridge on 10th October.

Brown Rat Rattus norvegicus. On 19th March, one was found drowned in a sump at Bank Top. Fox Vulpes vulpes. With records from at least 47 dates, most were obtained January–July, with only six dates between August–November and none in December. Most records involved singles, rarely two. Cubs were seen on 23rd June (two with a female at Bank Top) and 7th July (two together on Goole Moor). Many of the year's reports were from the area north of Blackwater Dike and the Alder Woods, to King's Moor and Goole Fields. There were also occasional records from agricultural land around Crowle Moor. Other locations included Elmhirst Tram, Chadwick Field, Green Belt, the Paraffin Cuttings and Shoulder o' Mutton Tram. A young Northern Lapwing fell prey to a Fox on Goole Moor on 27th May.

Stoat Mustela erminea. Of the 24 reports, seven were not placed, and most of the rest were from somewhere along Fisons' Road/Fisons' Road North. Also noted were individuals at Creyke's Sidings and Goole Moor. All records concerned single Stoats. There were sightings from each month January–October, especially March–April. A Water Vole was killed on 10th June at "Paraffin". A Stoat carried an unidentified shrew on 24th February.

Weasel Mustela nivalis. In sharp contrast to Stoat, there were only three records of this species, all in April. On 5th, one was along Swinefleet Warping Drain at Will Pits. Next day, at the junction of Middle Moor Tram and Fisons' Road, one was carrying a small prey item. On 27th, another or the same was struggling to move prey in the same area.

Mink Mustela vison. Singles were reported on 25th January (eastern edge of Crowle Moor near the goat field) and 29th December (no details).

†Red Deer Cervus elaphus. Reported on 81 dates in all months. These comprised at least five dates in each month February–June/September–December. The most prolific months were May (19 dates) and October (10 dates). There were few reports in the remaining months, with only one in July and two in August. During the year, the great majority of day-counts numbered up to 12, this figure involving a group on four dates in January. Calves were noted in May–June. The highest counts were obtained on 6th February (15), 21st March (31), 25th April (40 on the northern edge of Crowle Moor), 13th May (33+ in the Goole Fields–Goole Moor–Crowle Moor area), 18th May (18 on Goole Moor), 27th May (21 on Goole Fields) and 29th May (36 on Goole Moor–Goole Fields). Roaring males were a feature of late September–early October, maximum four+ on 4th; the locations were Will Pits and the southern part of Thorne Waste. Through the year, Will Pits and surrounding parts, like Mervyn's Tram, were often favoured (including the sole July record). However, as noted, there were also reports from Goole Moor–Goole Fields, and also from Crowle Moor and adjacent agricultural land. The goat field attracted occasional deer in October, with an immature animal on 4th. Other locations included

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the southern part of Thorne Waste as far north as Elmhirst Tram–Pony Bridge Tram; Fisons' Road North; and Top House Farm, where there were four on 3rd November. Two surveys were undertaken in March. A visual count on 21st yielded 79, an interesting comparison with the thermal imaging exercise of 24th–25th, which resulted in a figure of 165.

†European Roe Deer Capreolus capreolus. Abundantly reported in all months, especially January– June, with fewest records in September/November. There were numerous day-counts of up to five, some of six–eight, and nine on 31st January and 14th February. Day-counts exceeded this on 1st January (13), 3rd January (12), three dates in February (10), 12th March (10), 6th May (14) and 17th July (10, including two kids). Kids were seen from 9th June–8th August. Animals described as young, juvenile or immature were reported in several months, usually in the second half of the year, but with two "well grown juveniles" on 8th January. A "juvenile" was in the goat field on 2nd October. As with Red Deer, surveys were undertaken in March. There was the visual count on 21st (96), followed by thermal imaging on 24th–25th (42).

†Reeves' Muntjac Muntiacus reevesi. The single record involved a corpse photographed on the railway at Creyke's Crossing on 19th March (q.v.).


†Common Lizard Lacerta vivipara. There was a single March record, on 25th, of one north of Elmhirst (SE715148). The four April dates commenced with seven at Green Belt (SE7116) on 5th, followed by one on Snaith & Cowick Moor (SE711178) on 13th. On 18th, there were singles along Blackwater Dike (SE720176), along Fisons' Road North and at Fillingham's Gate. Finally, on 20th, there was one along Mervyn's Tram (SE739153), four at the Natural England Depot and one at Green Belt. Although unreported in May, there were records from June–July. These included one or two on the moor edge between Woodpecker Wood and Jones's Cable (SE713153), at the "southern end of Angle Drain" (SE728133), at 'Middle Moor'/Middle Moor Tram (including SE728146 and SE732142), Eastern Boundary Tram, Will Pits Scrape and at the nearby Natural England Depot. Records through August again included one or two near Elmhirst (SE719145), the Elmhirst Tram area (including SE722143), the canal towpath alongside the Southern Canals (SE727155), at 'Middle Moor'/Middle Moor Tram, along Blackwater Dike (SE749163), and in the Will Pits Scrape–Natural England Depot area. These included two on 24th at Middle Moor Tram/Angle Drain (SE733149). Others, and three on 23rd, were not localized, and collectively the foregoing records occasionally included juveniles. During September–10th October, one or two individuals made up reports from Blackwater Dike (at least SE749163), Will Pits Scrape–Natural England Depot (including juveniles), 'Middle Moor'/Middle Moor Tram, Eastern Boundary Tram (a juvenile at SE727153), Angle Drain (SE733149), Elmhirst Tram (SE724144) and south of Elmhirst Tram (SE726140). On 13th September, there were eight (including five juveniles) at the Natural England Depot and five (two juveniles) at Will Pits Scrape. October reports beyond 10th lacked detail, except singles along Elmhirst Tram (SE724144) on 19th and Eastern Boundary Tram (SE727153) on 25th, this latter being the last of the year.

†Adder or Viper Vipera berus. Many of the records emanated from Green Belt, Green Belt Scrape and adjacent New Mill Drain; there is a known hibernaculum in SE7116. All reports from this area are described here as from the Green Belt area. The year's first report was of a male in that area on 9th February. Others from the locality were reported on 17th (three males), 24th (two males), 25th (one male) and 27th (seven). In March, the Green Belt area held eight males and one female on 3rd, one male and two females on 5th, and up to 11 during 12th–19th, including three females. Also on 12th, a single male was along Pony Bridge Tram (SE730142). Counts in the Green Belt area during 22nd– 24th peaked at 12 on the former date. The 22nd also yielded sightings in the Ribbon Row area of Crowle Moor: at SE754147 there were three males and one female, and at SE752149 a single female. The last March date was 25th, when there were singles along Limberlost Tram (SE728138) and in Pony Bridge Wood (one female at SE737134).

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In early April, counts on Snaith & Cowick Moor involved five on 2nd, 15 on 5th and 26 on 6th. Also on 5th, there were 15 in the Green Belt area, two west of New Cross Drain, and two at canal 1 of the Southern Canals (SE717155). Records from the rest of April were obtained from several locations. On 13th, single males were near the Alder Woods (SE710176 and SE712178); with a further male on 15th at Casson's (SE728137). Reported from two areas on 20th: the Green Belt area (one male and three females) and 'Middle Moor' (a male at SE737153 and a sloughed skin at SE739153). On 24th, three were along Pony Bridge Tram (SE735142), including a dead male. April counts lacking any detail included 10 on 9th and seven males and one female on 18th. There were only four dates in May, the first being 4th when a male was along Fisons' Road at Mill Drain Marsh (SE733160). A sloughed skin was in the Shoulder o' Mutton area (SE731171) on 13th. Two days later, on 15th, there was an immature at "Johnson's Wood" (SE723176) and single females in the Green Belt area and along Fisons' Road at Will Pits. What was perhaps the latter female was also seen on 16th. During June, there were irregular reports of single males and females in the area from Will Pits Scrape to the Natural England Depot. Also in June, one was dead along Fisons' Road North (SE716177) on 12th, and three females were in the Green Belt area on 17th. Similarly, in July, the area centred on the eastern side of Will Pits held one–two females irregularly, plus three (not specified) at Will Pits Scrape on 17th. Also encountered in the Green Belt area, with single females occasionally, and two (not sexed) on 23rd/31st. Other July dates were 20th (one female in the Elmhirst area at SE719146), 28th (two at the Southern Canals), 29th (one female along canal 2 of the Southern Canals, at SE719155) and 30th (one female along Elmhirst Tram, at SE723143). The August records were mostly from the area centred on the eastern side of Will Pits, again usually involving one or two females, but three females on 8th. There were also occasional females in the Green Belt area. Additionally, on 7th an adult and eight+ juveniles were found dead on Snaith & Cowick Moor (SE716179). September records commenced with a female along Middle Moor Tram on 2nd. Three were encountered on 10th: along Fisons' Road North (SE713166), at Limberlost Wood (one male at SE729133), and along Collis's Tram (one female at SE720147). Next day, two females were in the Green Belt area and a juvenile was at Blackwater Dike (SE720176). Other dates in the month were 17th (one juvenile in the Green Belt area), 19th (one female at Will Pits Scrape), 24th (one female along Angle Drain at SE728138) and 29th (one juvenile at canal 1 of the Southern Canals, at SE717155). There were no records beyond September, with the exception of a juvenile in the Green Belt area on 19th October. One observer (SM) saw a photograph taken in 2015 by a farmworker when he was harvesting peas near the disused Swinefleet Works. It showed an Adder, and the same worker claimed to have seen others on drain sides in the area on previous occasions. During the year, there were instances of flying raptors clutching unidentified snakes: Marsh Harrier, Common Buzzard and Common Kestrel. This species?

†Grass or Ringed Snake Natrix natrix. In April, the first was on 13th, a female seen on Fisons' Road between Swinefleet Warping Drain and Will Pits Scrape. Singles were at Durham's Garden on 14th/18th. Also on 14th one was along Fisons' Road at Will Pits (SE747155), and on 18th there was another on Northern Goole Moor. Reports in May were dated 4th (on Goole Moor at SE743173 and at Will Pits) and 13th (a female along Blackwater Dike at Will Pits). The first of five June records was one on 6th along Fisons' Road at Green Belt (SE717165). There were then singles on 9th on Crowle Moor (SE755145); on 12th at the main canal (SE728156) and Will Pits Scrape; and finally a female on 30th again at Will Pits Scrape. During August, singles were at Will Pits Scrape on 2nd (juvenile), 4th/10th, with one adult and two juveniles there on 11th. Also on 11th one was at Green Belt; with one at Bank Top on 25th. A further report, recalled from perhaps June, was of a Grass Snake crossing the road near the disused Swinefleet Works.


†Common Frog Rana temporaria. On 17th March, several were heard at Bank Top opposite the eastern end of Goole Moor Tram. Next day one was south of the Viewing Platform (SE730155). On

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30th, individuals were heard at Will Pits Scrape. Also in the month, colonies were reported (spawn from 18th) from 'Thousand Acre floods' (SE738158) and 'Woodside floods' (SE743163). On 7th April, one was heard at Will Pits Scrape. Three days later, on 10th, two separate singles were associated with Mill Drain at Will Pits (SE742157 and SE748156). On the same date, two juveniles were along Eastern Boundary Tram. Unrecorded in June–July except a juvenile on 20th July at the same location. Of ten August–September records comprising one or two animals, one was along Blackwater Dike at Will Pits (SE747165) on 11th August, another was at Bank Top on 25th August, and two immatures were at Will Pits Scrape on 26th August. One was near the western end of Goole Moor Tram (SE723179) on 2nd September, with two at Blue Bridge (SE735159) on 7th and one along Mervyn's Tram (SE745153) on 9th. After an immature (no location) on 13th September, another immature was along Middle Moor Tram on 23rd. Subsequently, single immatures were along Middle Moor Tram (SE734155) on 8th October, and on the canal towpath on 2nd December, the latter apparently not a torpid animal.

†Smooth or Common Newt Triturus vulgaris. On 2nd January two immatures were found at Will Pits; they were under the bark of a fallen willow Salix. The only subsequent report was of two along Mervyn's Tram on 16th October.


Common Bream Abramis brama. Caught in the Quay Lane stretch of Swinefleet Warping Drain during the summer months (MS).

Roach Rutilus rutilus. Caught in the Quay Lane stretch of Swinefleet Warping Drain during the summer months (MS).


2011 Badger Meles meles. One was along Limberlost Tram at 04.00hrs on 31st May. At least two were at Woodpecker Wood in the early hours of 3rd July. On 7th September, two were seen nocturnally in the 'southern fields', towards the railway.

2012 Long-eared Owl. One pair bred in the extreme south of Thorne Waste.

Common Chiffchaff. The bird reported as P.c. abietinus was not accepted as such by the YNU Bird Section Adjudication Panel. It was noted only as a 'Northern' Chiffchaff, and therefore presumably as P.c. abietinus/tristis.

Badger. There were records from the 'southern fields' during the nights of 22nd–23rd February, 5th March, 22nd March (several) and 12th July. One was encountered, also after dark, on 29th June along the Thorne Colliery access road at Inkle Moor.

Great Cormorant. Two east on 20th July.

Marsh Harrier. A probable immature male was near the disused Swinefleet Works on 19th–20th July, with a juvenile also reported on the latter date.

Common Crane. Three on 20th July.

Hobby. Four on 20th July.

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2014 Black Stork Ciconia nigra. Concerning the bird of 26th May, two photographs were published in the Lincolnshire Bird Report 2014.

[Caspian Gull. The Lincolnshire Bird Report 2014 records an adult "near Crowle" on 6th August (TCL), and a third-winter, also "near Crowle", on 22nd August (TCL). Included for interest].

European Stonechat. The Lincolnshire Bird Report 2014 records a pair on Crowle Moor on 18th April.


There has been continuous bird recording on Thorne Moors since 1966, and in that time the status of a number of birds of prey has altered significantly e.g. Common Buzzard Buteo buteo, Hobby Falco subbuteo. Another example is Marsh Harrier Circus aeruginosus. Beyond local study, the records of this species during 1966–2015 provide a case-study in the wider documentation of Marsh Harrier in Yorkshire and/or Lincolnshire. This can be set alongside recording at other well-documented localities to illustrate change at a regional scale. The sources for the present outline are Limbert et al. (1986), Limbert (1990), Limbert (2014) and the annual Thorne Moors reports for 2004–15. As an adaptable and opportunistic species, Marsh Harrier was capable of recovering from decades of both human persecution and the more insidious effects of toxic chemicals. Initially, it was described as a scarce passage migrant and visitor on Thorne Moors (Limbert et al. 1986). Marsh Harrier was recorded in 21 years during 1966–89 on 66 dates. The extreme dates were in April and September, but with one December date. Most reports were of single birds, but occasionally there were two. The years 1990–93 extended the earlier level of occurrence, with 12 records from three of the four years, and including March and October reports. In 1993, there were occasional day-counts of three, and a female was seen displaying on 3rd May. A major change was apparent in 1994, with sightings obtained on no less than 47 dates, including wintering in 1994–95 and maximum counts of four. Subsequently, the number of dates per year generally continued at a high level, with 88 in 2000, although reports from the winter months remained uncommon. The peak count was of six on 19th August 2002. However, from 2004, Marsh Harriers were present throughout much, and then all, of each year. Some of the larger day-counts were associated with roosts, peaking at perhaps as many as 12 on 27th December 2011 and 11 on 7th July 2012. However, they were often much lower, with counts of seven or more remaining notable. Display was observed from 2005, and nesting occurred from 2011, with perhaps three pairs in 2015. Incredibly, in 2014 Marsh Harrier became the most frequently reported vertebrate on and around Thorne Moors, although of course this did not reflect absolute numbers. It is interesting to dwell on the years when Marsh Harrier was very much sought after by local birders. A hard-won Marsh Harrier lingered in the memory. There was then the excitement of Marsh Harriers returning to nest at Blacktoft Sands (Grieve 1977), followed by the species becoming much more frequent at Thorne in the mid-1990s, culminating in nesting from 2011. Today, Marsh Harrier is a familiar and routinely-recorded breeding bird. However, it is one that still evokes interest and retains its appeal to all types of birder.

REFERENCES Grieve, A. (1977) The Marsh Harrier in Yorkshire. The Naturalist 102:125–132.

Limbert, M. (1990) A Supplement to Thorne Moors: Birds and Man. Nature Conservancy Council, Wakefield.

Limbert, M. (2014) Marsh Harriers 1990–2003. Thorne Moors Vertebrates Report 2013: 40–45.

Limbert, M., R.D. Mitchell & R.J. Rhodes (1986) Thorne Moors: Birds and Man. Doncaster & District Ornithological Society, Doncaster.

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Anon. (1871) Crowle. Doncaster Chronicle, 6th January. ["Great numbers of wild-geese may now be seen on the peat moors of this and the adjoining parishes of Thorne, Rawcliffe, &c., and the courageous sportsmen are very active"].

Anon. (1902) Erred Through Ignorance. Doncaster Gazette, 14th November. [Searching for Rabbits with a lurcher to the south-west of Thorne Waste].

Anon. (1906) Medge Hall. Doncaster Gazette, 18th May. [Otter Lutra lutra caught at Medge Hall Farm on 13th May. "We understand others have been seen in the same neighbourhood].

Anon. (1911) Thorne Coachman's Pet Fox. Doncaster Gazette, 8th December. [Cub captured on Thorne Moors].

Anon. (1923) An Innocent Dog. Doncaster Gazette, 20th July. [Searching for game – presumably Rabbits – to the south-west of Thorne Waste. The dog in question "does not know a mouse from a piece of bread and butter"].

Anon. (1925) Game Trespass. Doncaster Gazette, 8th May. [With a lurcher to the south-west of Thorne Waste].

Anon. (2016) On the trail of the gabble-ratchet. Moor Space Issue 3.

Hammond, M. (2017) Water voles, Arvicola amphibius, on the Humberhead Peatlands National Nature Reserve. Thorne & Hatfield Moors Papers 10: 37–44.

[Howes, C.A.] (1974) What Do Foxes Eat? Yorkshire Naturalists' Union Newsletter 23: 5–6.

[Limbert, M.] (2016) Species monitoring 4. Adder. Thorne Moors Vertebrates Report 2014: 3–4.

Limbert, M. (2016) A note on Grass Carp. Thorne Moors Vertebrates Report 2014: 34.

Limbert, M. (2016) Common Cranes 2009–14. Thorne Moors Vertebrates Report 2014: 35–52.

Limbert, M. (2016) Black-headed Gull ringing: second instalments of results. Thorne Moors Vertebrates Report 2014: 52–54.

Limbert, M. (2016) Information sources on European Nightjar. Thorne Moors Vertebrates Report 2014: 54–59.

Middleton, A.J. & B.[C.] Eversham [1977] Thorne Grammar School Natural History Society. A Report for 1976. 'The wildlife of the Thorne area within a five mile radius of Thorne Grammar School'. [Thorne Grammar School Natural History Society], [Thorne]. [Includes records of vertebrates from Thorne Moors, the recorders being A.J. Middleton (mammals), T. Holgate (birds) and B.C. Eversham (herptiles)]. [Copy at Thorne Library].


Robert Adams, Alan Bamford, Steve Bamford, Richard Barnard, B.M. Baxter, M. Beevers, Matthew Blissett, Robert Broch (RB), Mick Bruin, Ashley Buchan, Janet Canning, Kevin Clarke, Graham Cook, Carl Cornish, C. Dooley, John Durrant, Louise Eaton, Gary Featherstone, Graham Fox, R.A. Frost, B. Frost, Keith Hannam, Sandra Hannam, Keith Heywood, Tom Higginbottom, James Hinchliffe, Steve Hiner (Natural England) (SH), Peter Hinks, S.T. Holliday, Dave Hursthouse, Tom Jackson, Janet Jackson, Jim Johnson, Peter Kendall, Callum King, Jason King, Helen R. Kirk, Phil Lee, Martin Limbert, T.C. Lowe, R.A. Marshall, Simone Maw, Ian McDonald, Wendy McKay, Ron Moat, Colin Neale, M.E. Oliver, Mark Outhwaite, Des Parmenter, Irvine Payne, M. Pepper, Simon Pilling, Diane Priestley (DP), Ray Priestley (RP), W.H. Priestley, Dirk Rigby, J. Roberts, Steve

35 Thorne Moors Vertebrates Report 2015